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Chapter 3

Chapter 3- WT.doc

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Walid Saleh

World Religion- September 17th 2012- Chapter 3 Judaism:historical religious tradition - ethical monotheism ( fundamental terms) - Abraham was called by God RitualInitiation: Bar Mitzvah- coming of age ritual at 13 the young person can now be accounted for religious practices and has a sense of moral responsibility Sabbath- Saturday is the day of rest Synagogue- jewish house of meeting and worship Pentateuch: 5 books of moses which make up the first section of the bible ( teenagers read from this at bar mitzvah) - temple is fundamental because all the rituals would take place in the temple DefiningJudaism: 3JEWISHcharacteristics: 1. God is unique who manifested himself in moses on mt sinai- God revealed the torah on mt sinai 2. 5 books of moses - these books over everything 3. Jews consider themselves to be the people of Israel ( historical continuation) -Judaism gave rise to Christianity and Islam - smallest world religion - Jews have said yes tot heir ethnic identity but chose not to follow their religion - world pop. of jews decreased 1/3 because of Holocaust - 3 major groupings of jews in north america: reform, conservative and orthodox - believe god expects all humans to follow the same moral code - believe they are God’s special people because they have been saved from slavery and elected to fulfill a special responsibility BiblicalPeriod: - Liberal wing of judaism accepts modern historical principles and reserves the right to question accuracy of biblical text - traditional wing of judaism believes every word in the text to be literally true CreationinGenesis: - 7th day God rested after creating the world and the 7 th day is the day of the Sabbath Saturday for Jews and Sunday for Christians PrimalCouple:IMPORTANT*** -reinforcesthe3rdprincipleofthetheologyofrabbinicjudaism-Disobedience - Eden story explains the conditions of the human life - pain and evil are the consequence of human disobedience and lack moral discernment - transgression committed by the primal couple was not to cast a great permanent cloud above the heads of human ( like the Christians believe) - Israeli culture could be considered anti mythological and rejects the nature gods and cults however scholars believe that myth is a genre that attempts to express the cultures sense of order Abraham: - Patriarchs and matriarchs the tribal ancestors of the Hebrew - no evidence outside the bible of Moses ever existing Covenant: -covenantal bond- between God and the people of Israel - central organizing concept in the ancient hebrew religion was the covenant - covenant: specifies exactly how God desires Abrahams descendants to behave - theme of obedience to Gods will is emphasized with God asking Abraham to sacrifice his son - 2 other patriarchs make covenants with God, Abraham's son Isaac and Isaac's son Jacob DivineName: - God of the patriarchal lineage of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob gives his personal name YHWH Exodus: World Religion- September 17th 2012- Chapter 3 - Exodus story: slave labour the egyptians were harsh on the Hebrews- God tells Moses to request the freedom of Hebrews from the pharaoh and the pharaoh refuses his request- God sends down the plague on the Egyptians- Hebrews escape through the Red Sea - this story is a metaphor of the transition from slavery to freedom - Jews commemorate this with celebrating Passover - Israelite proceed to settled life in the land of Canaan under Moses’s successor Joshua - biggest threat to Israelites were the philistines to arrived on the coast around the same time they did - Romans late named the region Palestina after the philistines 5BooksofMoses: -history of the fathers - Mt Sinai is where the entire corpus of the 5 books was given directly from God to Moses - 10 Commandments emphasize the human social responsibilities as does the Book of the Covenant the extended law code ModernTheoriesoftheCompositionoftheBible - “Pentateuch is a composite creation” French physician Jean Astruc - Documentary Hypothesis made by Wellhausen holds that the Torah was derived from originally independent, parallel and complete narratives, which were subsequently combined into the current form by a series ofredactors (editors). The number of these is usually set at four, but this is not an essential part of the hypothesis IsraeliteSociety: - Interpreters say that the bible restricts marriage to one woman and one man- however many israelites had more than one wife and many concubines - marriage is universal among hebrews men were allowed several wives as long as they could afford them and support heir children - God’s complete control over history is displayed with birth stories ( failure to bear children would undermine the covenant and God would change this for a woman to benefit her people) - Hebrew society demanded capital punishment for adultery and murder - Slavery was less offensive in Hebrew society than others Prophets: -how the prophets received their messages is unknown - prophets were intermediaries used by God to deliver a message the words were God’s words not their own - Abraham is the origin but with Moses we have a nation BabylonianExile:riseofempiresthedestructionofthetemples - 586 B.C.E Judaea Kingdom fell and Solomon's temple razed to lie in ruins for 3 generations -Exile marked the transition of the Hebrew tradition from the national cult of an
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