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Chapter 3

Study Guide Chapter 3 - Christianity

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University of Toronto St. George
Andre Maintenay

CHAPTER THREE: CHRISTIANITY Page 147 THE LATIN TRADITION THE PAPACY N %K0.K:7.K.039070L3#4209K4:JK941L980O1,8.,9K4OL. universal N Its interaction with political regimes produced the synthesis of religion, culture and governmental and social structure referred to as Christendom (the domain of Christianity) N Bishop of Rome has unchallenged ecclesiastical authority in the latin speaking part of the empire o 0.,:8041-08:85:33L3J702,7N949K0L8.L5O09K,9,9K4OL.8-0OL0;094K,;0 been the first bishop of Rome N The popes had great influence in matters of government that increased dramatically when the western part of the empire collapsed under Germanic invasion N Gregorian chant !450*70J47,9K0*70,9 AUGUSTINE N Aurelius Augustine (354-430) N Turned to Manichaeism (an intensely dualistic religion that grew out of Gnosticism o Converted and embraced Christianity in 386 N The struggle between good and evil, spirit and matter N His view of the human self and personality and his sense of guilt about the b48 ,5509L908Z070701O0.90L39K0K:7.K8.0397,O.43.073ZL9KOL-07,9L4317428L3 N Wrote Confessions o Related his own spiritual struggles N A monk named Pelagius disputed his views regarding human frailty o He did not deny the grace of God, but his critics said that he did not give adequate weight to the importance of divine grace in overcoming human frailty MEDIEVAL CHRISTIANITY THE MONASTIC TRADITION N Monks played an importance role in both Greek and Latin Christianity o Made demanding schedule of prayer and worship in their practice o Distinction between religious ore regular clergy and secular clergy N A religious monk or a nun has to take vows to follow the spiritual discipline and live b the rule of a religious community N Prayer services at specified hours and serious scriptural study Cluniac Fathers N Cluny was the site of one of the most influential monasteries N Founded by William the Pious, Duke of Aquitaine in 910 N Founded more than 300 satellite religious houses across Europe Cistercians N Robert of Molesmes in 1098 founded the Cisterian order N Wore simple undyed wool habits, ate no meat, worshipped in sparely decorated churches N Trappists known for their austere silence www.notesolution.com
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