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Chapter 5

Study Guide Chapter 5 - The Hindu Tradition

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Department
Religion
Course
RLG100Y1
Professor
Andre Maintenay
Semester
Winter

Description
CHAPTER FIVE: THE HINDU TRADITION N Many traditions encompassing hundreds of communities and sectarian movements N Each of which has its own hallowed canon, its own sacred place and its own concept of the supreme deity th N Only in the colonial period (beginning of the 18 century) that the term Hinduism .,2094-0:809470107949K070OLJL43419K08:-.439L30398343-Muslim population N The term applies to those who belong to one of the Hindu denominations (ie, Vira Shaia or Brahmo Samaj), any other person domiciled in the territories to which the Hindu Family Act extends to who is not a Muslim, Christian, Parsi or Jew by religion N #4:JKO,-4:9 41,3L,8545:O,9L43 N An alternative term designating a comprehensive tradition is sanatana dharma Origins th N The standard view in the early 20 century was that it had grown from a fusion of the indigenous religions of the Indus Valley with the faith of the Aryans The Harappa Culture N Two towns, known today as Mohenjo Daro and Harappa, were more than 480km apart, yet archaeological evidence suggested a certain uniformity in the culture across the entire northwestern part of the subcontinent N Suggest continuous travel and communication in between them N People of the Harappa civilization were impressive builders who live in what appear to have been planned cities N In Mohenjo Daro, there is a huge swimming pool like structure (aka the Great Bath) surrounded by porticos and flights of stairs N Believed that it was designed for religious rituals of some sort N some houses also had a room with a fire altar, suggesting a domestic fire ritual N stone sculptures and terracotta statuettes of what looks like a mother goddess may have been used as icons in worship N approximately 2000 flat seal and many amulets were also found N a few of the seals represent a man seated on a low throne in what looks like a yoga posture N 9K02,38K0,7088,39K0,3L2,O8,74:38:JJ0899K,99KL82,-0,57494950 of the deity that came to be known as Shiva N no one knows what happened to the Harappa culture N some scholars believe that it was destroyed by Indo-European invaders around 1750 BCE The Indo-Europeans N people from Central Asia began migrating to widely distant regions at some time between 2000 BCE and 1500 BCE www.notesolution.com N some moved west and north (Europe), some moved south or east (Iran) and called themselves Aryans N other believe that Indo-Europeans came from the region around modern Turkey N and the migration may have begun as early as 6000 BCE N they composed many poems and manuals on rituals and philosophy N traditions were carefully committed to memory using various mnemonic devices to ensure correct pronunciation, rhythm, and intonation, and passed from generation to generation by word of mouth The Vedas N earliest surviving Indo-European compositions are the Vedas N works are collectively known as shruti (that which was heard) N the Vedic seers (rishis) saw the mantras and transmitted them to their disciples, starting an oral tradition N Vedas are now thought to have been composed between 1750 BCE and 600 BCE N 4 Vedic collections: Rig, Sama, Yajur and Atharva N each in turn consists of four sections: hymns (Samhitas, the earliest parts), directions for the performance of sacred rituals (Brahmanas), compositions of the forest (Aranyakas) and philosophical works (Upanishads) N earliest section of the Rig Veda contains 1028 hymns N the hymns of the Sama Veda and Yajur Veda are largely borrowed from Rig Veda N Sama Veda was meant to be sung in a specific manner N The Upanishads, composed around 600 BCE, are the most recent sections of each collection The Vedic Hymns N The earliest Samhitas are addressed to many gods who are not so familiar today N Agni, the god of fire, was seen as a messenger between humans and deities N Soma, a male god of the moon, also the name of an intoxicating drink, extracted from plants and used in rituals N Saraswati, a goddess, also spoken of sometimes as a river, as learning N But in later Vedic literature, the Brahmanas, she is identified with the goddess Vac (speech) N Most early hymns ask for good and happy life on this earth, not for salvation or eternal bliss N Central to Vedic religious life was the ritual sacrifice (yajna) N Both domestic and community sacrifices were usually performed with a fire N Many sacrifices involved the making, offering and drinking of soma N The Hymn of Origins expresses wonder at the creation of the universe from nothing and ends with the statement that perhaps no one knows how it all came to be N Rta is truth and justice, the rightness of things N Makes harmony and peace possible in the earth and the heavens www.notesolution.com
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