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ch 4. pages: 146-151
•The Jainism message: the path to happiness, truth and self-realization is the path of
restraint. Happiness is the product of not of doing but of not-doing. Not only to embrace
the world but to disengage from it.
•emphasis on restraint
•the spirit of the tradition: the path of renunciation is a path of transformative power.
•interplay between the worldly and the other-worldly, both in scripture and in practice.
•This tradition expresses itself ritually through the veneration and emulation of the Ji-
nas (aka. Tirthankaras who build bridges across the ocean of birth and death, or sam-
sara).The Jina is the Jaina ideal and the focus of their devotion.
•Jinas potential to be regal and bejeweled, crowned and an Arhat, deep in meditation
•world renouncer and world conqueror
•karma, from a life of non-violence, restraint, self-discipline and a commitment to not
harm are the starting points.
•“ahimsa paramo dharma” - non-violence is the supreme path
•this means radical non-interference, not a plan to stop all worldly violence
•surrounded by countless life forms who all posses an eternal soul (jiva): to cause them
harm would be to cause ourselves harm because every act of violence gives us nega-
tive karma which hinders us from knowing our true self. Lack of intention to harm is not
•attachment to the world through our personalities and bodies, hinder knowing our true
self which is not part of this world. it has nothing to do with our relationships, experi-
ences or skill.
•momentary awakening: samyak darshan - ‘right faith or correct intuition’. when we real-
ize the above. it is the start of jainism
•two-jain sects: Digambara (naked or ‘sky-clad) and Svetambara (white-clad)
•both Jains and Buddhists had historically similar start times and rejected the flawed
Brahminical focus with cosmic and social order, and the cult sacrifices.
•similar views of salvation
•Mahavira is their teacher and ‘great hero’. his embryo was transfered from a Brahmin
woman to Queen Trisala
•in the cycle of generation and degeneration, they believe that Mahavira was the last
jina until the cycle rebuilds and 24 more jinas will be created
ch 5: pages 178-196, 202-220
3rd Century BCE Theravada Buddhism (India)
1000-1500 CE Theravada Buddhism (Myanmar, Cambodia, Siam [Thailand],
Laos, Sri Lanka – 11th cent.)
1st Century CE Mahayana Buddhism (India)
1st Century CE: Pure Land in India; Pure Land in China = Jungtu; in Japan =
Jodo (12th Century CE)
3rd-4th Century CE Mahayana dominant in Central Asia and China (Silk
5th Century CE: Sanlun (Madhyamika in China)
5th Century CE: Vajrayana moves to Himalayas
6th Century CE: Chan in China (Buddhism from Korea to Japan)
Mahayana – Yogacara (in China = Faxiang)
8th Century CE: Vajrayana in Tibet
9th Century CE: persecution of Buddhism in China