Chapter 10 Motivating and Leading Employees
Forms of Employee Behavior
Employee behavior – the pattern of actions by the members of an organization that directly or indirectly
influences the organization’s effectiveness.
Performance behaviors – the behaviors that directly targeted at performing a job. (Simple or Complex)
Organizational citizenship – provide positive benefits to the organization but in more indirect ways.
(good or bad)
Counterproductive behaviors – those that detract from organizational performance.
Absenteeism – occurs when an employee does not show up for work.
Turnover – the percentages of an organization’s workforce that leaves and must be replaces.
Turnover is natural, but a high turnover rate will cause: numerous vacancies, disruption in
production, decreased productivity and increased retraining costs.
Other forms of counterproductive behavior:
Theft and sabotage - direct financial costs for organization
Sexual/racial harassment – lowers morale, producing fear, and driving off valuable employees
Workplace aggression and violence
Individual Differences Among Employees
Individual Differences – phsycial, psychological, and emotional attributes that vary from one person to
another. Two main catagories: personality and attitudes.
Personality – the relative stable set of psychoclogical attributes that distinguishes one person from
another. Big Five Personality triats.
3. Emotionality – People with +ve emotionality are better able to handle job stress, pressure and
tension. Their stability might also cause them to be seen as more reliable than their less stable
4. Extroversion – more likely to be attracted to jobs based on personal relationships i.e.
5. Openness – reflects how open or rigid a person is in terms of his/her beliefs.
Emotional intelligence/emotional quotient EQ – the extent to which people possess social skills, are self-
aware, can manage their emotions, can motivate themselves and can express empathy for others.
EQ can be developed
Attitudes – reflection of our beliefs and feelings about specific ideas, situations, or other people.(i.e. Job
satisfaction and organizational commitment)
Job satisfaction – the degree of enjoyment that people derive from performing their jobs
(morale – overall attitude people have toward their workplace) High JS ≠ High productivity. Organizational commitment (job commitment) – reflects an individual’s identification with the
organization and its mission.
Giving employees a voice helps increase employee commitment.
Matching people and Jobs
Psychological contracts – the set of expectations held by an employee concerning what he or she will
contribute to an organization (contributions) & what the organization will provide the employee in
return (inducements). Fig. 10.2 P.308
The Person-Job Fit
Person-job fit – the extent to which a person’s contributions and the organization’s inducements match
one another. If the organization can take perfect adv of those behaviors and abilities and exactly fulfill
those needs, it will have achieved a perfect person-job fit.
Motivation in the Workplace
Motivation – the set of forces that cause, focus, and sustain workers’ behavior. 3 theories of motivation.
Classical Theory and Scientific Management
Classical theory of motivation – Workers are motivated solely by MONEY.
Frederick Taylor – industrial engineer proposed a way for both companies and workers to benefit from
this widely accepted view of life in the workplace (The Principals of Scientific Management.)
Scientific management – analyzing jobs in order to find beter, more efficient ways to perform them.
Time-and-motion studies (Gilbreth) – in order to discover the “one best way” of doing a job.
Early Behavioral Theory
Hawthorne effect – the tendency for workers’ productivity to incrase when they feel they are receiving
special attention from management
Human relations – the interactions between employers and employees and their attitudes toward one
The human-resources model: Theories X and Y
Douglas McGregor – Classified manager’s different beliefs into sets of assumptions (Theory X & Theory Y)
He was in favor of theory Y
Theory X – tend to believe that people are naturally lazy and uncooperative and must therefore be
either punished or rewarded to be made productive.
Theory Y – tend to believe that people are naturaly energetic, growth oriented, self-motivated and
interested in being productive.
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Model
Hierarchy of human needs model – By Abraham Maslow, proposed that people have five basic needs,
which are arranged in a hierarchy of importance. Lower-level needs must be largely satisfied before a
person will be motivated to satisfy higher-level needs. Fig. 10.3. Lower to Upper:
Physiological needs – survival oriented. GE:shelter. OE:Salary
Security needs – the needs for stability and protection from the unknown. GE:stability.
OE:pension plan Social needs – needs for friendship and companionship. OE: friends at work. So they have a
feeling that they belong in the company.
Esteem needs – include the need for status, recognition & selfrespect. OE:Job Title
Self-actualization needs – needs for self-fulfillment, needs to grow & develop. OE:challenging
According to maslow, once one set of needs has been satisfied, it ceases to motivate behavior.
Two-Factor (Motivation-Hygiene) Theory
Two-factor theory – Frederick Herzberg – Job satisfaction and dissatisfaction depend on two factors:
1. hygiene factors. i.e. working conditions, quality of supervision, interpersonal relations, pay and
job security. Hygiene factors cause movement along a continuum, one from
2. Motivation factors. i.e. recognition, responsibility, advancement, and achievement. Motivation
factors cause movement along a continuum from no satisfaction satisfaction
Managers first must ensure that hygiene factors are acceptable then must offer motivating factors
as means of improving satisfaction & motivation.
Contemporary Motivation Theory
Expectancy theory – people are motivated to work toward rewards that they want and that they believe
they have a reasonable chance of obtaining. Fig. 10.5
Individual Effort EPIndividual PerformancePRorganizational rewardsRPGPersonal Goals
Issues: Effort Performance Performance Reward Rewards Personal Goals
Expectancy theory explan why some people do not work as hard as they can when their salaries are
based purely seniority.
Equity Theory – social comparisons (1) what they contribute to their job with what they get in return
(2) their input/output ratio with that of other employees.
Ratio of contribution to return – analyzing inputs and outputs.
To restore equity by: asking for raises, reduce their effort, work shorter hours, complain to their bosses
Strategies for Enhancing Motivation
Reinforcement/Behavior Modification Theory
Many managers try to control/modify workers’ behavior through systematic rewards.
1. Define the specific behaviors that managers want their employees to exhibit and the specific
behaviors they want to eliminate
2. ‘Shape’ employee behavior by using reinforcement.
Reinforcement – applying/withholding positive/negative consequences in an attempt to motivate
employees to exhibit behavior the manager wants.
4 basic reinforcement options:
(1) Positive reinforcement – apply +ve consequences when employees exhibit desired behaviors
(2) Punishment – apply -ve consequences when employees exhibit undesirable behaviors
(3) Omission – withhold +ve consequences when employees exhibit undesirable behaviors (4) Negative reinforcement – withhold –ve consequences when employee exhibit desired behaviors.
Positive reinforcement is the strategy most frequently used. Rewards work best when people are
learning new behaviors, skills or jobs. When workers become more adept, rewards can be used less freq.
Goal Setting Theory
Goal Setting Theory – People perform better when they set specific, quantified, time-framed goals.
SMART goals – Specific, measurable, agreed upon, realistic, and time framed and which are most likely
to result in increased employee performance.
MBO – Management By Objectives – a system of collaborative goal setting that extend from the top of
an organization to its bottom. It tries to apply the goal setting theory throughout the organization. Has
the biggest motivational impact.
Participative management and Empowerment
Participative management and empowerment – A method of increasing