Textbook Notes (362,790)
Canada (158,054)
RSM219H1 (136)
Chapter 9

Chapter 9 Notes

6 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto St. George
Rotman Commerce
Chris Bovaird

CHAPTER 9 – Motivating and Leading Employees PSYCHOLOGICAL CONTRACTS IN ORGANIZATIONS  Physiological contract – the set of expectations held by an employee concerning what he or she will contribute to an organization (contributions) and what the organization will provide the employee (inducements) in return  Human relations – interactions between employers and employees and their attitudes toward one another THE IMPORTANCE OF JOB SATISFACTION  Job satisfaction – the pleasure and feeling of accomplishment employees derive from performing their jobs well  Morale – the generally positive or negative mental attitude of employees toward their work and workplace Why Businesses Need Satisfied Employees  Satisfied workers o Are more likely to work hard o Are more likely to try to make useful contributions to the organization o Will also have fewer grievances o Are less likely to engage in negative behaviours (e.g., complaining, deliberately slowing their work pace, etc) o Are also more likely to come work every day o Are more likely to remain with the organization  Dissatisfied workers are far more likely to be absent due to o Minor illnesses o Personal reasons o A general disinclination to work  Turnover – the percentage of an organization’s workforce that leaves and must be replaced MOTIVATION IN THE WORKFORCE  Motivation – the set of forces that causes people to behave in certain ways  We will focus on three major approaches to motivation in the workplace that reflect a chronology of thinking in the area: o Classical Theory and Scientific Management  Classical theory of motivation – a theory of motivation that presumes that workers are motive almost solely by money  In his book The Principles of Scientific Management (1911), industrial engineer Frederick Taylor proposed a way for both companies and workers to benefit from this widely accepted view of life in the workplace  Scientific management – breaking down jobs into easily repeated components, and devising more efficient tools and machines for performing them  Plants across Canada and the United States were hiring experts to perform time- and-motion studies o Behaviour Theory: The Hawthorne Studies  Hawthorne effect – the tendency for workers’ productivity to increase when they feel they are receiving special attention from management o Contemporary Motivation Theories  The major motivation theories include  The Human-Resources Model: Theories X and Y  Beliefs About People at Work Theory X and Theory Y convey very different assumptions about people at work Theory X – a management approach based on the Theory Y – a management approach based on the belief that people must be forced to be productive belief that people want to be productive because because they are naturally lazy, irresponsible, and they are naturally energetic, responsible, and co- uncooperative operative People are lazy People are energetic People lack ambition and dislike responsibility People are ambitious and seek responsibility People are self-centered People can be selfless People resist change People want to contribute to business growth and change People are gullible and not very bright People are intelligent  Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Model  Hierarchy of human needs model – theory of motivation describing five levels of human needs and arguing that basic needs must be fulfilled before people work to satisfy higher- level needs  Maslow’s hierarchy of human needs provides a useful categorization of the different needs people have GENERAL EXAMPLES ORGANIZATIONAL EXAMPLES Self-Fulfillment Self-Actualization Needs are Challenging Job needs for self-fulfillment. They include the needs to grow and develop one’s capabilities and to achieve new and meaningful goals. Challenging job assignments can help satisfy these needs Status Esteem Needs include the need Job Title for status and recognition as well as the need for self-respect. Respected job titles and large offices are among the things that businesses can provide to address these needs Friendship Social Needs include the needs Friends at Work for friendship and companionship. Making friends at work can help to satisfy needs, as can the feeling that you “belong” in a company Stability Security Needs include the needs Pension Plan for stability and protection from the unknown. Many employers thus offer pension plans and job security Shelter Physiological Needs are Salary necessary for survival; they include food, water, shelter, and sleep. Businesses address these needs by providing both comfortable working environments and salaries sufficient to buy food and shelter  Two-Factory Theory – a theory of human relations developed by Frederick Herzberg that identifies factors that must be present for employees to be satisfied with their jobs and factors that, if increased, lead employees to work harder  According to two-factor theory, job satisfaction depends on two factors Satisfact
More Less

Related notes for RSM219H1

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.