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Chapter 5

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University of Toronto St. George
Rotman Commerce

Chapter Five- Theories of Work Motivation Why Study Motivation?  The need for increase productivity to be globally competitive  Need for rapid changes that contemporary organization are undergoing  Stable systems are replaced by requirement s for flexibility and attention to customers which requires high levels of initiative  Initiative depends n motivation What is Motivation?  Person works “hard”, direct his/her behaviour toward appropriate outcomes Basic Characteristics of Motivation  Motivation-the extent to which persistent effort is directed towards a goal Effort  The strength of the person’s work-related behaviour amount of effort exhibits on the job Persistence  Persistency applied to the effort of the working task  Cannot work hard for two hours, then goof off for six hours Direction  Effort and persistence refer to quantity of work an individual producesquality crucial also Goals  All motivated behaviour have goal/objective which it is directed  Motivated ppl act to enhance organizational objectives ie. High productivity, attendance, creativity  May also be motivated by goal contrary to organization: absenteeism, sabotage… Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation  People are motivated by factors in external environment (pay), or be self-motivated w/o external factors Intrinsic Motivation  Motivation that stems from the direct relationship b/t worker and taskself applied  Ex. Achievement, accomplishment, challenge, competence, interest in job  Freedom to make choices is intrinsic motivation Extrinsic Motivation  Motivation that stems from the work environment external o the task, usually applied by others  Ex. pay benefits, company policies, supervision  Profit sharing and employee stock options are extrinsic motivators  The availability of extrinsic motivators can reduce the intrinsic motivation stemming from task  Extrinsic rewards depend on performancemotivating potential of intrinsic rewards decreases  Making extrinsic rewards contingent on performance makes individual feel less competent and less in control of own behaviourppl then believe that performance is controlled by environment and perform only for moneyintrinsic motivation suffers Motivation and Performance  Performance-extent to which an organizational member contributes to achieving the objectives for the organization General Cognitive Ability  General cognitive ability- a person’s basic information processing capacities and cognitive resources  Cognitive abilityintelligence or mental ability 1  Reflect individual’s overall capacity and efficiency for processing info and includes a number of cognitive abilities: verbal, numerical, spatial and reasoning abilities  Predicts learning and training success, job performance (both manual and mental)  Required ability for performance and career success Emotional Intelligence (EI)  Emotional intelligence-ability to understand and manage one’s own and other’s feelings and emotions  Ability to perceive and express emotion, assimilate emotion in thought, understand and reason about emotions, manage emotions in oneself and others  Ppl w/ EI can identify and recognize meanings of emotions and manage and regulate emotions as a basis for problem solving, reasoning, thinking and action Hierarchy of Emotion Skills 1. Perception of Emotions-detecting emotions  Ability to perceive emotions and id your own and others emotions  Id emotions n ppl’s faces and nonverbal behaviour 2. Integration and assimilation of emotions-use emotion to guide thinking  Ability to use and assimilate emotions and emotional experiences to guide and facilitate one’s thinking and reasoning  Use emotions in functional ways-making decisions and other cognitive processes  Ability to shift one’s emotions to generate new emotions  Ability to shirt one’s emotions and generate new emotions see different way in different perspectives 3. Knowledge and understanding of emotions-understand how emotions influence ppl/knowledge  Understand emotional information, determinants and consequences of emotions, and how emotions change over time  how diff. emotions are generated over diff. situations and ppl are influenced by emotions 4. Management of emotions  Manage own and others’ feelings and emotions and emotional relationship  Able to regulate, adjust and change own emotions and others to suit situations  Able to perceive, integrate and assimilate and understand emotions  EI is strongly related to job performance which requires high levels of EI (police officers and customer service) Understanding of Task  Also affects performance Chance Factors  External environment which affect one’s performance Personality  Affects performance What is Employee Engagement?  Engagement-extent to which an individual immerses his or her true self into his or her work roles when ppl are engaged, employ and express themselves physically, cognitively and emotional during performance  Engaged ppl display their true selvesthink and feel, creativity, beliefs, values and personal connections  Disengaged ppl hide and conceal their true selves  Involve some degree of effort, but more has to do with HOW individual PERFORM their jobs rather than how motivated they are  Two key components: attention, absorption Attention  Amount of time one spends thinking about a role 2 Absorption  Being engrossed in a role and the intensity of one’s focus on his/her absorption  Being psychologically present at work  Psychological presence: psychological meaningfulness, safety and availability Psychological meaningfulness  When there are incentives for them to engagereturn on investment, feel worthwhile, useful, valued Psychological safety  When they can employ and express themselves without fear of negative consequences to their self- image, status or career Psychological availability  When ppl feel that they have a physical, emotional, and cognitive resources required to engage themselves in a situation (they are wanted) Needs Theories of Work Motivation  Need theories-motivation theories that specify the kinds of needs people have and the conditions under which they will be motivated to satisfy these needs in a way that contributes to performance  Needs are physiological and psychological wants or desires that individuals can satisfy by acquiring certain incentives or achieving particular goals  Need theories concern with WHAT motivates workers Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs  Humans have 5 sets of needs that are arranged in a hierarchy  Lowest level unsatisfied need category has the greatest motivating potentioal  None of the needs is a best motivator, motivation depends on person’s position it the needs hierarchy  Individuals are motivated to satisfy their physiological needs b4 they want safety needs  When a need is unsatisfied, exerts a powerful effect on individual’s thinking and behaviour  When need at a particular level is satisfied, turn attention to next level  Satisfied need is not longer an effective motivator  “growth” neeed become stronger as they gratify 1. Physiological needs  Needs satisfied for survival-food, water, oxygen, shelter  Min. wages, existence-able working conditions 2. Safety needs  Security, stability, freedom from anxiety and structured and ordered environment  Safe working conditions, fair and sensible rules and regulations, job securities, comfortable working environment, pension and insurance plans, 3. Belongingness needs  Needs for social interaction, affection, love, companionship and friendship  Opportunity to interact w/ others on the job, friendly and supportive supervision, opportunity for teamwork, opportunity to develop new social relationship 4. Esteem needs  feelings of adequacy, competence, independence, strength and confidence  Give employees opportunities to master tasksgive them feelings of achievement and responsibility  Awards, promotion, prestigious job titles, recognition 5. Self-actualization needs  Desire to develop one’s true potential as an individual to the fullest extent and express one’s skills, talents, emotions that is most personally fulfilling  Clear perception of reality, and know what they want  Jobs with potential for creativity and growth 3 Alderfer’s ERG Theory Agrees with Maslow  Lower-level needs are satisfied, desire to have higher-level needs increase  Growth needs become more compelling as they are more fulfilled Disagrees with Maslow  Does not assume that lower-level needs must be gratified b4 less concrete needs become operative  Not a rigid hierarchy of needs, can move up and down  If higher-level unsatisfied, which increase desire to gratify lower level needs  If growth is not gratified, may want increase in pay  The more lower level needs are gratified, more high level need satisfaction is desired  Less higher level needs are gratified, more lower level need satisfaction is desired  Three categories 1. Existence needs  Can be satisfied by material substances or conditions (physiological and safety needs) 2. Relatedness needs  Can be satisfied by open communications, exchange of thoughts and feelings w/ other organizational members (belongingness and esteem needs) 3. Growth needs  Fulfilled by strong personal involvement in work setting  Full utilization of one’s skills and ability and the creative development for new skills and ability (self-actualization) McClelland’s Theory of Needs  McClelland’s theory of needs- non-hierarchical need theory of motivation that outlines the conditions under which certain needs result in particular patterns of motivations  Needs reflect relatively stable personality characteristics that one acquires through early life experiences and exposure to selected aspects of one’s society Need for Achievement  Have a strong desire to perform challenging tasks well  Concerned with better their own performance or that of others  Concerned with innovation and long-term goal involvement  Want intrinsic satisfactiongrowth or self-actualization needs  A preference for situations in which personal responsibility can be taken for outcomes  Do not prefer situations in which outcomes are determined by chance  Tendency to set moderately difficult goals with risks  Success for easy goals provide no achievement  Desire for performance feedback  Permits individual
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