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Chapter 4

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Rotman Commerce
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Chapter 4 values: a broad tendency to prefer certain states of affairs over others  consists of what we consider good and bad + how we should and should not behave  values are structured around achievement, power, autonomy, conformity, tradition, social welfare Cultural Differences in Values  Japan is at the top of the list for work centrality; Belgians and Americans had average work centrality and British scored low  people who worked more had a higher work centrality Hofstede’s Study  four basic dimensions along which work-related values differed across cultures: 1. power distance: the extent to which an unequal distribution of power is accepted by society members a. small: minimized inequality, accessible superiors, downplayed power diffs. i. Denmark, New Zealand, Israel, Austria b. large: inequality is natural, inaccessible superiors, highlighted power diffs. i. Philippines, Venezuela, Mexico 2. uncertainty avoidance: the extent to which people are uncomfortable with uncertain + ambiguous situations a. strong: rules, hard work, conformity, security b. weak: less concerned with rules, conformity, security, + hard work isn’t a virtue 3. masculinity/feminity: masculine cultures differentiate gender roles, support men dominance and stress economic performance a. feminine cultures stress fluid gender roles, sexual equality, quality of life b. Japan is most masculine society 4. individualistic vs collectivism: individualistic societies stress independence, initiative, and privacy while collective cultures favour interdependence and loyalty to one’s family a. USA is most individualistic, 5. long/short term orientation: long term orientation stresses persistence, thrift, close attention to status differences (China, HK, Japan, SK, Taiwan) a. short term stresses personal steadiness + stability, face-saving, social niceties (USA, Canada, UK, Zimbabwe, Nigeria) Attitudes - a fairly stable evaluative tendency to respond consistently to some specific object, situation, person or category of people - attitudes involve evaluations directed towards specific targets - attitudes are a function of what we think + feel (a product of a belief and value) - belief + value attitude behaviour - e.g. belief (my job is interfering with my family life) + value (I dislike anything that hurts my family) attitude (I dislike my job) behaviour (I’ll search for another job) Job Satisfaction - a collection of attitudes that workers have about their jobs - facet satisfaction: tendency for an employee to be more/less satisfied with various facets of the job - overall: summary indicator of a person’s attitude towards his/her job that cuts across the various facets - content of the work is most likely to stimulate high performance - job descriptive index consists of: work, supervision, pay, people, promotion What Determines Job Satisfaction? 1) Discrepancy - discrepancy theory: a theory that job satisfaction stems from the discrepancy b/w the job outcomes wanted and the outcomes that are perceived to be obtained - satisfaction is high when there is a small gap b/w pay received and perception of how much pay should be received 2) Fairness - affects both what people want from their jobs + how they react to discrepancies of organizational life a) Distributive Fairness - occurs when people receive the outcomes they think they deserve from their jobs - involves the ultimate distribution of work rewards + resources - equity theory: theory that job satisfaction stems from a comparison of the inputs one invests in a job + the outcomes one receives in comparison with the inputs and outcomes of another person or group o inputs: anything that people give up, offer, or trade to their organization in exchange for outcomes e.g. education, training, seniority, hard work o outputs: factors that an organization distributes to employees in exchange for their inputs e.g. pay, career opportunities, supervision, nature of work, etc. o my outcomes / my inputs = other’s outcomes / other’s inputs b) Procedural Fairness - occurs when the process used to determine work outcomes is seen as reasonable - relevant to outcomes such as performance evaluation, pay raises, promotions, layoffs, work assignments - likely to provoke dissatisfaction when people also see distributive fairness being low - in allocating outcomes, the following factors contribute to perceptions of procedural fairness: o the allocator:  follows consistent procedures over time + across people  uses accurate info + appears unbiased  allows two-way communication during the allocation process  welcomes appeals of the procedure or allocation c) Interactional Fairness - ooccurs when people feel they have received respectful and informative communication about an outcome - made up of communication which is: o sincere + polite and treats the individual w/dignity o candid, timely, thorough 3) Disposition - some people are predisposed by virtue of their personalities to be more/less satisfied despite changes in discrepancy or fairness - some personality characteristics originating in genetics or early learning contribute to adult job satisfaction - people who are extraverted, conscientious, optimistic and proactive are more satisfied w/their jobs, while those high in neuroticism are less satisfied 4) Mood and Emotion - emotions: intense, often short-lived feelings caused by a particular event e.g. joy, pride, anger, fear, sadness - moods: less intense, longer-lived and more diffuse feelings - affective events theory: (Weiss + Cropanzano): jobs consists of events that have the potential to provoke emotions/influence moods depending on how we appraise these events - emotional contagion: t
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