RSM260 Chapter 3

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Department
Rotman Commerce
Course
RSM260H1
Professor
Katherine A.De Celles
Semester
Fall

Description
Perception – Chapter 3 Perceiver, target, and situation are the three components to perception. Past experience often influence the perceiver. Social Identity Theory – we categorize ourselves in terms of characteristics and memberships in social categories, such as our nationality, religion, occupation, etc. Perception is selective – the perceiver doesn’t use all the available cues, and is constant over time, forming a homogeneous picture of the target person. Primary Effect – the tendency for a perceiver to rely on early cues. Recency Effect – the tendency for a perceiver to rely on recent cues or last impressions. Central Traits – personal characteristics of a target person that are of particular interest. Appearance is one of those traits, and research shows that taller, more attractive, and non-overweight people are more likely to get promoted and paid more. This is an example of a bias in the workplace. Implicit Personality Theory – which personality characteristics go together, e.g. you expect hardworking people to be honest, or a funny person to be lazy. Projection – the tendency to attribute one’s own thoughts to others Stereotyping – generalizing about other people in a social category Attribution Theory – making judgements about others Attribution – the process by which causes or motives are assigned to explain people’s behaviour, explaining their actions. They can be dispositional (attributed to their characteristic such as intelligence, greed, etc.) or situational (external environment), such as bad weather, poor advice, etc. The cues that help us determine the cause of behaviour are: Consistency cues – high consistency leads to dispositional attributes (just who they are). Consensus Cues – reflect how a person’s behaviour compares to others’. Low consensus behaviours are more dispositional Distinctiveness Cues – when something occurs across a variety of situations, it lacks uniqueness so it might be dispositional, whereas if it varies across different situations, it’s situational. Of course, there are biases in attribution: Fundamental Attribution Error – we overemphasize dispositional explanations (e.g. it’s that PERSON’s fault, not the Situation). Actor-Observer Effect – actors emphasize the situation in explanation, such as the cause of a car accident. Self-Serving Bias – People tend to take credit for suc
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