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Rotman Commerce
Malcolm Mac Kinnon

CH.3 LEARNING AND MEMORY Learning: a relatively permanent change in behavior that is caused by experience - Incidental learning: learn when not trying; consumers recognize brand names/hum product jingles, even for product categories they do not use - Behavioral learning theories: assume that learning occurs as the result of responses to external events 1. Classical conditioning : occur when a stimulus that elicits a response is paired with another stimulus that initially does not elicit a response on its own. Over time the second stimulus causes a similar response  meat powder: unconditioned stimulus (UCS)  bell : conditioned stimulus (CS)  drooling: conditioned response (CR)  conditioning effects are more likely to occur after the conditioned/unconditioned stimuli have been paired a number of times  repeated exposures increase the strength of stimulus=response associations and prevent the decay of these associations  extinction: when the effects of prior conditioning are reduced/disappeared  stimulus generalization: the tendency of stimuli similar to a CS to evoke similar conditioned responses (ex; Pavlov’s dogs salivate when they heard noises that resembled the sound of a bell  masked branding: deliberately hide a product’s true origin Marketing applications of classical conditioning - these conditioned associations are crucial to many marketing strategies that rely on the creation and perpetuation of positive brand equity, in which a brand has strong positive associations in a consumer’s memory and commands a lot of loyalty - the behavior of consumers can also be conditioned: slow music in grocery stores led to longer visits - backward conditioning: unconditioned stimulus (playing a jingle) should be prior to the conditioned stimulus (showing a soft drink) - because of the danger of extinction, a classical conditioning may not be as effective for products that are
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