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CA (170,000)
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Chapter 2

RSM260H1 Chapter Notes - Chapter 2: Job Satisfaction, Job Performance, Normative Social Influence


Department
Rotman Commerce
Course Code
RSM260H1
Professor
Katherine A.De Celles
Chapter
2

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The$relatively$stable$set$of$psychological$characteristics$that$influences$
the$way$an$individual$interacts$with$his$or$her$environment.
!
An$individual’s$personality$summarizes$ his$or$her$personal$style$of$
dealing$with$the$world.$
!
WHAT$IS$PERSONALITY?
i.e.$individuals$are$predisposed$to$behave$in$certain$ways.$
§
Individuals$possess$stable$traits$or$characteristics$that$influence$
their$attitudes$and$behaviours.
However,$research$failed$to$support$the$usefulness$ of$personality$as$
a$predictor$of$organizational$behaviour$and$job$performance
Dispositional$approach.
!
Characteristics$of$the$organizational$setting$ influence$people’s$
attitudes$and$behaviour.
E.g.$the$characteristics$of$work$tasks$
§
job$satisfaction$and$other$work-related$attitudes$are$largely$
determined$by$situational$factors,$
Situational$approach.
!
Individuals$attitudes$and$behaviour$are$a$function$of$both$
dispositions$and$the$situation.
the$most$widely$accepted$perspective$
weak%situations: is$not$always$clear$how$a$person$should$
behave
§
∴$personality$has$the$most$impact$in$weak$situations$
§
loosely$defined$roles,$few$rules$
"
e.g.,$a$newly$formed$volunteer$community$organization$
§
e.g.,$routine$military$operations$
"
personality$tends$to$have$less$impact$
"
strong%situations: there$are$clear$expectations$for$
appropriate$behaviour.$
§
∴$the$extent$to$which$personality$influences$peoples$attitudes$
and$behaviour$depends$on$the$situation.$
§
E.g.$
personality$characteristics$influence$people’s$ behaviour$when$
the$situation$calls$for$a$particular$personality$characteristic$
§
some$personality$characteristics$are$most$useful$in$
certain$organizational$situations$
"
implications$of$the$interactionist$perspective$
§
managers$ need$to$appreciate$$employee$diversity.$$
"
∴$there$is$no$one$best$personality,
§
Trait$activation$theory
Interactionist$approach.
!
PERSONALITY$AND$ORGANIZATIONAL$BEHAVIOUR
These$Big$Five$dimensions$are$known$as$the$Five-Factor$Model$(FFM)$
!
sociable,$outgoing,$energetic,$joyful,$and$assertive$
§
High$in$extraversion
that$require$a$lot$of$interpersonal$interaction$
§
E.g.$sales$and$management,$
§
Suited$job
Extraversion:%the$extent$to$which$a$person$is$outgoing$versus$shy.$
!
likely$to$have$more$effective$interactions$with$co-workers$and$
customers$
§
∵$they$tend$to$be$more$calm$and$secure$
§
Low:$self-confident$and$have$high$self-esteem$
Neuroticism:%degree$to$which$a$person$has$appropriate$emotional$
control.$
!
interaction$and$involve$helping,
§
Cooperating
§
Suited$job$that$require
Agreeableness:%the$extent$to$which$a$person$is$friendly$and$
approachable.$
!
High:$to$perform$well$on$most$jobs$
Conscientiousness:%the$degree$to$which$a$person$is$responsible$ and$
achievement$oriented.$
!
High:$tend$toward$creativity$and$innovation.$
Low:$favour$the$status$quo$
Openness%to%experience: the$extent$to$which$a$person$thinks$flexibly$and$
is$receptive$to$new$ideas.$
!
A$set$of$beliefs$about$whether$one’s$behaviour$is$controlled$mainly$
by$internal$or$external$forces
who$believe$that$the$opportunity$to$control$their$own$
behaviour$resides$within$themselves.$
§
high$internals$
who$believe$that$external$forces$determine$their$behaviour.$
§
see$the$world$as$an$unpredictable,$powerful$people$control$
their$destinies$
§
high$externals
Locus$of$Control
!
The$Five-Factor$Model$of$Personality
The$extent$to$which$people$observe$and$regulate$how$they$appear$and$
behave$in$social$settings$and$relationships
!
The$people$who$wear$their$heart$on$their$sleeve
!
low$self-monitors:
!
who$take$great$care$to$observe$around$them$and$control$the$images$
that$they$project.
!
high$self-monitors
!
Self-Monitoring
!The$degree$to$which$a$person$has$a$positive$self-evaluation.
!favourable$self-images.
!to$be$highly$motivated$to$protect$themselves$from$threats$to$their$
self-esteem.
!High
!People$with$low$self-esteem$tend$to$be$more$susceptible$to$external$
and$social$influences$than$those$who$have$high$self-esteem.
§Impacted$more$by$events$and$people$in$the$organizational$
environment$
"adopting$others’$views
§seek$social$approval$from$others
§do$not$react$well$to$ambiguous$and$stressful$situations.
§react$badly$to$negative$feedback
!low$self-esteem$employees$
!Behavioural$plasticity$theory.
Self-Esteem
ADVANCES$IN$PERSONALITY
§Propensity$to$view$the$world,$including$oneself$and$other$
people,$in$a$positive$light.
higher$job$satisfaction$and$job$performance$
§
§engage$in$more$organizational$citizenship$behaviours.
Positive$affectivity$(PA)
!
§Propensity$to$view$the$world,$including$oneself$and$other$
people,$in$a$negative$light.
§be$associated$with$counterproductive$work$behaviours
!Negative$affectivity$(NA)
§influence$job$attitudes$and$work$behaviours.$
!influence$people’s$emotions$and$mood$states$at$work$
Positive$and$Negative$Affectivity
!
§Taking$initiative$to$improve$current$circumstances$or$creating$
new$ones.
§challenging$the$status$quo$rather$than$passively$adapting$to$
present$conditions
!Proactive$behaviour.
§A$stable$personal$disposition$that$reflects$a$tendency$to$take$
personal$initiative$across$a$range$of$activities$and$situations$
and$to$effect$positive$change$in$one’s$environment.
§unconstrained$by$situational$forces$and$act$to$change$and$
influence$their$environment.
!Proactive$personality.$
§E.g.$$implementing$solutions$to$organizational$or$departmental$
problems$or$spearheading$ new$programs.
!search$for$and$identify$opportunities,$show$initiative,$take$action,$
and$persevere$until$they$bring$about$meaningful$change
§be$passive$and$to$react$and$adapt$to$their$environment
!Who$don't$have$a$proactive$personality$
!Proactive$Personality
AND$ORGANIZATIONAL$BEHAVIOUR
Chapter$2
#$%&'()*+, -)*,./+,01.2
3405,6-
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The$relatively$stable$set$of$psychological$characteristics$that$influences$
the$way$an$individual$interacts$with$his$or$her$environment.
!
An$individual’s$personality$summarizes$ his$or$her$personal$style$of$
dealing$with$the$world.$
!
WHAT$IS$PERSONALITY?
i.e.$individuals$are$predisposed$to$behave$in$certain$ways.$
§
Individuals$possess$stable$traits$or$characteristics$that$influence$
their$attitudes$and$behaviours.
However,$research$failed$to$support$the$usefulness$ of$personality$as$
a$predictor$of$organizational$behaviour$and$job$performance
Dispositional$approach.
!
Characteristics$of$the$organizational$setting$ influence$people’s$
attitudes$and$behaviour.
E.g.$rewards$and$punishment
E.g.$the$characteristics$of$work$tasks$
§
job$satisfaction$and$other$work-related$attitudes$are$largely$
determined$by$situational$factors,$
Situational$approach.
!
Individuals$attitudes$and$behaviour$are$a$function$of$both$
dispositions$and$the$situation.
the$most$widely$accepted$perspective$
weak%situations: is$not$always$clear$how$a$person$should$
behave
§
∴$personality$has$the$most$impact$in$weak$situations$
§
loosely$defined$roles,$few$rules$
"
e.g.,$a$newly$formed$volunteer$community$organization$
§
e.g.,$routine$military$operations$
"
personality$tends$to$have$less$impact$
"
strong%situations: there$are$clear$expectations$for$
appropriate$behaviour.$
§
∴$the$extent$to$which$personality$influences$peoples$attitudes$
and$behaviour$depends$on$the$situation.$
§
E.g.$
personality$characteristics$influence$people’s$ behaviour$when$
the$situation$calls$for$a$particular$personality$characteristic$
§
some$personality$characteristics$are$most$useful$in$
certain$organizational$situations$
"
implications$of$the$interactionist$perspective$
§
managers$ need$to$appreciate$$employee$diversity.$$
"
∴$there$is$no$one$best$personality,
§
Trait$activation$theory
Interactionist$approach.
!
PERSONALITY$AND$ORGANIZATIONAL$BEHAVIOUR
These$Big$Five$dimensions$are$known$as$the$Five-Factor$Model$(FFM)$
!
sociable,$outgoing,$energetic,$joyful,$and$assertive$
§
High$in$extraversion
that$require$a$lot$of$interpersonal$interaction$
§
E.g.$sales$and$management,$
§
Suited$job
Extraversion:%the$extent$to$which$a$person$is$outgoing$versus$shy.$
!
likely$to$have$more$effective$interactions$with$co-workers$and$
customers$
§
∵$they$tend$to$be$more$calm$and$secure$
§
Low:$self-confident$and$have$high$self-esteem$
Neuroticism:%degree$to$which$a$person$has$appropriate$emotional$
control.$
!
interaction$and$involve$helping,
§
Cooperating
§
Suited$job$that$require
Agreeableness:%the$extent$to$which$a$person$is$friendly$and$
approachable.$
!
High:$to$perform$well$on$most$jobs$
Conscientiousness:%the$degree$to$which$a$person$is$responsible$ and$
achievement$oriented.$
!
High:$tend$toward$creativity$and$innovation.$
Low:$favour$the$status$quo$
Openness%to%experience: the$extent$to$which$a$person$thinks$flexibly$and$
is$receptive$to$new$ideas.$
!
A$set$of$beliefs$about$whether$one’s$behaviour$is$controlled$mainly$
by$internal$or$external$forces
who$believe$that$the$opportunity$to$control$their$own$
behaviour$resides$within$themselves.$
§
high$internals$
who$believe$that$external$forces$determine$their$behaviour.$
§
see$the$world$as$an$unpredictable,$powerful$people$control$
their$destinies$
§
high$externals
Locus$of$Control
!
The$Five-Factor$Model$of$Personality
The$extent$to$which$people$observe$and$regulate$how$they$appear$and$
behave$in$social$settings$and$relationships
!
The$people$who$wear$their$heart$on$their$sleeve
!
low$self-monitors:
!
who$take$great$care$to$observe$around$them$and$control$the$images$
that$they$project.
!
high$self-monitors
!
Self-Monitoring
!The$degree$to$which$a$person$has$a$positive$self-evaluation.
!favourable$self-images.
!to$be$highly$motivated$to$protect$themselves$from$threats$to$their$
self-esteem.
!High
!People$with$low$self-esteem$tend$to$be$more$susceptible$to$external$
and$social$influences$than$those$who$have$high$self-esteem.
§Impacted$more$by$events$and$people$in$the$organizational$
environment$
"adopting$others’$views
§seek$social$approval$from$others
§do$not$react$well$to$ambiguous$and$stressful$situations.
§react$badly$to$negative$feedback
!low$self-esteem$employees$
!Behavioural$plasticity$theory.
Self-Esteem
ADVANCES$IN$PERSONALITY
§Propensity$to$view$the$world,$including$oneself$and$other$
people,$in$a$positive$light.
higher$job$satisfaction$and$job$performance$
§
§engage$in$more$organizational$citizenship$behaviours.
Positive$affectivity$(PA)
!
§Propensity$to$view$the$world,$including$oneself$and$other$
people,$in$a$negative$light.
§be$associated$with$counterproductive$work$behaviours
!Negative$affectivity$(NA)
§influence$job$attitudes$and$work$behaviours.$
!influence$people’s$emotions$and$mood$states$at$work$
Positive$and$Negative$Affectivity
!
§Taking$initiative$to$improve$current$circumstances$or$creating$
new$ones.
§challenging$the$status$quo$rather$than$passively$adapting$to$
present$conditions
!Proactive$behaviour.
§A$stable$personal$disposition$that$reflects$a$tendency$to$take$
personal$initiative$across$a$range$of$activities$and$situations$
and$to$effect$positive$change$in$one’s$environment.
§unconstrained$by$situational$forces$and$act$to$change$and$
influence$their$environment.
!Proactive$personality.$
§E.g.$$implementing$solutions$to$organizational$or$departmental$
problems$or$spearheading$ new$programs.
!search$for$and$identify$opportunities,$show$initiative,$take$action,$
and$persevere$until$they$bring$about$meaningful$change
§be$passive$and$to$react$and$adapt$to$their$environment
!Who$don't$have$a$proactive$personality$
!Proactive$Personality
AND$ORGANIZATIONAL$BEHAVIOUR
Chapter$2
#$%&'()*+, -)*,./+,01.2 3405,6-
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