Textbook Notes (376,282)
CA (165,929)
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Rotman Commerce (1,015)
RSM260H1 (47)
Chapter 2

RSM260H1 Chapter 2: Summary of Textbook Reading

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Department
Rotman Commerce
Course Code
RSM260H1
Professor
Katherine A.De Celles

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The$relatively$stable$set$of$psychological$characteristics$that$influences$
the$way$an$individual$interacts$with$his$or$her$environment.
!
An$individual’s$personality$summarizes$ his$or$her$personal$style$of$
dealing$with$the$world.$
!
WHAT$IS$PERSONALITY?
i.e.$individuals$are$predisposed$to$behave$in$certain$ways.$
§
Individuals$possess$stable$traits$or$characteristics$that$influence$
their$attitudes$and$behaviours.
However,$research$failed$to$support$the$usefulness$ of$personality$as$
a$predictor$of$organizational$behaviour$and$job$performance
!
Characteristics$of$the$organizational$setting$ influence$people’s$
attitudes$and$behaviour.
E.g.$rewards$and$punishment
E.g.$the$characteristics$of$work$tasks$
§
job$satisfaction$and$other$work-related$attitudes$are$largely$
determined$by$situational$factors,$
Situational$approach.
!
Individuals$attitudes$and$behaviour$are$a$function$of$both$
dispositions$and$the$situation.
the$most$widely$accepted$perspective$
weak%situations: is$not$always$clear$how$a$person$should$
behave
§
∴$personality$has$the$most$impact$in$weak$situations$
§
loosely$defined$roles,$few$rules$
'
e.g.,$a$newly$formed$volunteer$community$organization$
§
e.g.,$routine$military$operations$
'
personality$tends$to$have$less$impact$
'
strong%situations: there$are$clear$expectations$for$
appropriate$behaviour.$
§
∴$the$extent$to$which$personality$influences$peoples$attitudes$
and$behaviour$depends$on$the$situation.$
§
E.g.$
personality$characteristics$influence$people’s$ behaviour$when$
the$situation$calls$for$a$particular$personality$characteristic$
§
some$personality$characteristics$are$most$useful$in$
certain$organizational$situations$
'
implications$of$the$interactionist$perspective$
§
managers$ need$to$appreciate$$employee$diversity.$$
'
∴$there$is$no$one$best$personality,
§
Trait$activation$theory
Interactionist$approach.
!
PERSONALITY$AND$ORGANIZATIONAL$BEHAVIOUR
These$Big$Five$dimensions$are$known$as$the$Five-Factor$Model$(FFM)$
!
sociable,$outgoing,$energetic,$joyful,$and$assertive$
§
High$in$extraversion
that$require$a$lot$of$interpersonal$interaction$
§
E.g.$sales$and$management,$
§
Suited$job
Extraversion:%the$extent$to$which$a$person$is$outgoing$versus$shy.$
!
likely$to$have$more$effective$interactions$with$co-workers$and$
customers$
§
∵$they$tend$to$be$more$calm$and$secure$
§
Low:$self-confident$and$have$high$self-esteem$
Neuroticism:%degree$to$which$a$person$has$appropriate$emotional$
control.$
!
interaction$and$involve$helping,
§
Cooperating
§
Suited$job$that$require
Agreeableness:%the$extent$to$which$a$person$is$friendly$and$
approachable.$
!
High:$to$perform$well$on$most$jobs$
Conscientiousness:%the$degree$to$which$a$person$is$responsible$ and$
achievement$oriented.$
!
High:$tend$toward$creativity$and$innovation.$
Low:$favour$the$status$quo$
Openness%to%experience: the$extent$to$which$a$person$thinks$flexibly$and$
is$receptive$to$new$ideas.$
!
A$set$of$beliefs$about$whether$one’s$behaviour$is$controlled$mainly$
by$internal$or$external$forces
who$believe$that$the$opportunity$to$control$their$own$
behaviour$resides$within$themselves.$
§
high$internals$
who$believe$that$external$forces$determine$their$behaviour.$
§
see$the$world$as$an$unpredictable,$powerful$people$control$
their$destinies$
§
high$externals
Locus$of$Control
!
The$Five-Factor$Model$of$Personality
The$extent$to$which$people$observe$and$regulate$how$they$appear$and$
behave$in$social$settings$and$relationships
!
The$people$who$wear$their$heart$on$their$sleeve
!
low$self-monitors:
!
who$take$great$care$to$observe$around$them$and$control$the$images$
that$they$project.
!
high$self-monitors
!
Self-Monitoring
!The$degree$to$which$a$person$has$a$positive$self-evaluation.
!favourable$self-images.
!to$be$highly$motivated$to$protect$themselves$from$threats$to$their$
self-esteem.
!High
!People$with$low$self-esteem$tend$to$be$more$susceptible$to$external$
and$social$influences$than$those$who$have$high$self-esteem.
§Impacted$more$by$events$and$people$in$the$organizational$
environment$
'adopting$others’$views
§seek$social$approval$from$others
§do$not$react$well$to$ambiguous$and$stressful$situations.
§react$badly$to$negative$feedback
!low$self-esteem$employees$
!Behavioural$plasticity$theory.
Self-Esteem
ADVANCES$IN$PERSONALITY
§Propensity$to$view$the$world,$including$oneself$and$other$
people,$in$a$positive$light.
higher$job$satisfaction$and$job$performance$
§
§engage$in$more$organizational$citizenship$behaviours.
Positive$affectivity$(PA)
!
§Propensity$to$view$the$world,$including$oneself$and$other$
people,$in$a$negative$light.
§be$associated$with$counterproductive$work$behaviours
!Negative$affectivity$(NA)
§influence$job$attitudes$and$work$behaviours.$
!influence$people’s$emotions$and$mood$states$at$work$
Positive$and$Negative$Affectivity
!
§Taking$initiative$to$improve$current$circumstances$or$creating$
new$ones.
§challenging$the$status$quo$rather$than$passively$adapting$to$
present$conditions
!Proactive$behaviour.
§A$stable$personal$disposition$that$reflects$a$tendency$to$take$
personal$initiative$across$a$range$of$activities$and$situations$
and$to$effect$positive$change$in$one’s$environment.
§unconstrained$by$situational$forces$and$act$to$change$and$
influence$their$environment.
!Proactive$personality.$
§E.g.$$implementing$solutions$to$organizational$or$departmental$
problems$or$spearheading$ new$programs.
!search$for$and$identify$opportunities,$show$initiative,$take$action,$
and$persevere$until$they$bring$about$meaningful$change
§be$passive$and$to$react$and$adapt$to$their$environment
!Who$don't$have$a$proactive$personality$
!Proactive$Personality
AND$ORGANIZATIONAL$BEHAVIOUR
Chapter$2
#$%&'()*+, -)*,./+,01.2
3405,6-
The$relatively$stable$set$of$psychological$characteristics$that$influences$
the$way$an$individual$interacts$with$his$or$her$environment.
!
An$individual’s$personality$summarizes$ his$or$her$personal$style$of$
dealing$with$the$world.$
!
WHAT$IS$PERSONALITY?
i.e.$individuals$are$predisposed$to$behave$in$certain$ways.$
§
Individuals$possess$stable$traits$or$characteristics$that$influence$
their$attitudes$and$behaviours.
However,$research$failed$to$support$the$usefulness$ of$personality$as$
a$predictor$of$organizational$behaviour$and$job$performance
Dispositional$approach.
!
Characteristics$of$the$organizational$setting$ influence$people’s$
attitudes$and$behaviour.
E.g.$rewards$and$punishment
E.g.$the$characteristics$of$work$tasks$
§
job$satisfaction$and$other$work-related$attitudes$are$largely$
determined$by$situational$factors,$
Situational$approach.
!
Individuals$attitudes$and$behaviour$are$a$function$of$both$
dispositions$and$the$situation.
the$most$widely$accepted$perspective$
weak%situations: is$not$always$clear$how$a$person$should$
behave
§
∴$personality$has$the$most$impact$in$weak$situations$
§
loosely$defined$roles,$few$rules$
'
e.g.,$a$newly$formed$volunteer$community$organization$
§
e.g.,$routine$military$operations$
'
personality$tends$to$have$less$impact$
'
strong%situations: there$are$clear$expectations$for$
appropriate$behaviour.$
§
∴$the$extent$to$which$personality$influences$peoples$attitudes$
and$behaviour$depends$on$the$situation.$
§
E.g.$
personality$characteristics$influence$people’s$ behaviour$when$
the$situation$calls$for$a$particular$personality$characteristic$
§
some$personality$characteristics$are$most$useful$in$
certain$organizational$situations$
'
implications$of$the$interactionist$perspective$
§
managers$ need$to$appreciate$$employee$diversity.$$
'
∴$there$is$no$one$best$personality,
§
Trait$activation$theory
Interactionist$approach.
!
PERSONALITY$AND$ORGANIZATIONAL$BEHAVIOUR
These$Big$Five$dimensions$are$known$as$the$Five-Factor$Model$(FFM)$
!
sociable,$outgoing,$energetic,$joyful,$and$assertive$
§
High$in$extraversion
that$require$a$lot$of$interpersonal$interaction$
§
E.g.$sales$and$management,$
§
Suited$job
Extraversion:%the$extent$to$which$a$person$is$outgoing$versus$shy.$
!
likely$to$have$more$effective$interactions$with$co-workers$and$
customers$
§
∵$they$tend$to$be$more$calm$and$secure$
§
Low:$self-confident$and$have$high$self-esteem$
Neuroticism:%degree$to$which$a$person$has$appropriate$emotional$
control.$
!
interaction$and$involve$helping,
§
Cooperating
§
Suited$job$that$require
Agreeableness:%the$extent$to$which$a$person$is$friendly$and$
approachable.$
!
High:$to$perform$well$on$most$jobs$
Conscientiousness:%the$degree$to$which$a$person$is$responsible$ and$
achievement$oriented.$
!
High:$tend$toward$creativity$and$innovation.$
Low:$favour$the$status$quo$
Openness%to%experience: the$extent$to$which$a$person$thinks$flexibly$and$
is$receptive$to$new$ideas.$
!
A$set$of$beliefs$about$whether$one’s$behaviour$is$controlled$mainly$
by$internal$or$external$forces
who$believe$that$the$opportunity$to$control$their$own$
behaviour$resides$within$themselves.$
§
high$internals$
who$believe$that$external$forces$determine$their$behaviour.$
§
see$the$world$as$an$unpredictable,$powerful$people$control$
their$destinies$
§
high$externals
Locus$of$Control
!
The$Five-Factor$Model$of$Personality
The$extent$to$which$people$observe$and$regulate$how$they$appear$and$
behave$in$social$settings$and$relationships
!
The$people$who$wear$their$heart$on$their$sleeve
!
low$self-monitors:
!
who$take$great$care$to$observe$around$them$and$control$the$images$
that$they$project.
!
high$self-monitors
!
Self-Monitoring
!The$degree$to$which$a$person$has$a$positive$self-evaluation.
!favourable$self-images.
!to$be$highly$motivated$to$protect$themselves$from$threats$to$their$
self-esteem.
!High
!People$with$low$self-esteem$tend$to$be$more$susceptible$to$external$
and$social$influences$than$those$who$have$high$self-esteem.
§Impacted$more$by$events$and$people$in$the$organizational$
environment$
'adopting$others’$views
§seek$social$approval$from$others
§do$not$react$well$to$ambiguous$and$stressful$situations.
§react$badly$to$negative$feedback
!low$self-esteem$employees$
!Behavioural$plasticity$theory.
Self-Esteem
ADVANCES$IN$PERSONALITY
§Propensity$to$view$the$world,$including$oneself$and$other$
people,$in$a$positive$light.
higher$job$satisfaction$and$job$performance$
§
§engage$in$more$organizational$citizenship$behaviours.
Positive$affectivity$(PA)
!
§Propensity$to$view$the$world,$including$oneself$and$other$
people,$in$a$negative$light.
§be$associated$with$counterproductive$work$behaviours
!Negative$affectivity$(NA)
§influence$job$attitudes$and$work$behaviours.$
!influence$people’s$emotions$and$mood$states$at$work$
Positive$and$Negative$Affectivity
!
§Taking$initiative$to$improve$current$circumstances$or$creating$
new$ones.
§challenging$the$status$quo$rather$than$passively$adapting$to$
present$conditions
!Proactive$behaviour.
§A$stable$personal$disposition$that$reflects$a$tendency$to$take$
personal$initiative$across$a$range$of$activities$and$situations$
and$to$effect$positive$change$in$one’s$environment.
§unconstrained$by$situational$forces$and$act$to$change$and$
influence$their$environment.
!Proactive$personality.$
§E.g.$$implementing$solutions$to$organizational$or$departmental$
problems$or$spearheading$ new$programs.
!search$for$and$identify$opportunities,$show$initiative,$take$action,$
and$persevere$until$they$bring$about$meaningful$change
§be$passive$and$to$react$and$adapt$to$their$environment
!Who$don't$have$a$proactive$personality$
!Proactive$Personality
AND$ORGANIZATIONAL$BEHAVIOUR
Chapter$2
#$%&'()*+, -)*,./+,01.2 3405,6-

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Description
Chapter 2 Thursday, May 17, 2018 3:29 PM WHAT IS PERSONALITY? The relatively stable set of psychological characteristics that influences the way an individual interacts with his or her environment. An individuals personality summarizes his or her personal style of dealing with the world. PERSONALITY AND ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR Dispositional approach. Individuals possess stable traits or characteristics that influence their attitudes and behaviours. i.e. individuals are predisposed to behave in certain ways. However, research failed to support the usefulness of personality as a predictor of organizational behaviour and job performance Situational approach. Characteristics of the organizational setting influence peoples attitudes and behaviour. E.g. rewards and punishment job satisfaction and other workrelated attitudes are largely determined by situational factors, E.g. the characteristics of work tasks Interactionist approach. Individuals attitudes and behaviour are a function of both dispositions and the situation. the most widely accepted perspective E.g. weak situations:is not always clear how a person should behave personality has the most impact in weak situations e.g., a newly formed volunteer community organization loosely defined roles, few rules strong situations: there are clear expectations for appropriate behaviour. e.g., routine military operations personality tends to have less impact the extent to which personality influences peoples attitudes and behaviour depends on the situation. Trait activation theory personality characteristics influence peoples behaviour when
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