Chapter 4 Notes

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3 Jan 2011
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CHAPTER 4: ANALYZING WORK & DESIGNING JOBS
Work Flow design : analyzes the tasks necessary for production of product or service
output of process : What is provided
activities involved
inputs
raw inputs
equipment
Human Resources
JOB ANALYSIS: process of getting detailed information about jobs by determining
tasks, duties and responsibilities.
Important for:
owork redesign
oworkforce planning
oselection
otraining
operformance appraisal
ojob evaluation
Work Oriented Job Analysis: focused on work results and listings of various
tasks performed to achieve them
Worker Oriented Job Analysis: focused on overall elements of the job and list
visual, interpersonal, sensory, intellectual and physical requirements
Gather information through:
Interviews
Direct observation (job shadow)
disadvantage: may alter behaviour
Structured questionnaires
preset questions
has to be easy to read / understand
Position analysis Question (PAQ)
focus on overall job behaviours
advantages: valid, reliable, easy to use, cost effective
disadvantages: worker oriented, difficult to read and
understand
Task inventory
work oriented surveys that break down tasks into their
component tasks
Functional Job Analysis:
what employee does& the outcome of that action
difference between what is done, and what is
accomplished
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Worker traits inventory
Threshold traits analysis system
Fleishman Job Analysis survey
Job Element Method
-
Job Description:
-Job title
-Brief description of TDR (task duties and responsibilities)
-List of essential duties & detailed specification of the tasks to involved in
carrying out each duty
Job Specification: qualities of a person performing the job (list of competencies)
JOB DESIGN: process of defining the way work will be performed and the tasks that a
given job requires
Goals: High level of job satisfaction and performance
done by industrial engineers
Job satisfaction: degree to which an individual feels positively or negatively about
various aspects of the job
Common Aspects:
Pay
Tasks
Supervision
Co-workers
Work setting
Advancement opportunities
Individual Performance Equation:
Performance = Ability x Support x Effort
Motivating Job Characteristics:
-Skill Variety
-Task Identity
-Task Significance
-Autonomy
-Feedback
MOTIVATION METHODS:
Job enlargement : diversifying the tasks
Job extension: combining several simple jobs to form a more varied range of
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tasks
Job rotation: moving employees along several different types of jobs
Job enrichment: engaging employees by adding more decision making authority to jobs
Teamwork motivating
-effectiveness not guaranteed
-best when 6-8 ppl who share same technology, location/work hours, and easy to
learn skills
Flextime: have to work between certain hours but the rest is up to you
allows for community/family involvement
Job Sharing: 2 part times
Compressed Work Week
Distributed Work
from office, home, satellite office
less need for office space
Ergonomic Jobs: reducing physical fatigue, aches, work complaints
MOTIVATION THEORIES:
Taylor’s Scientific Management : analyzes and synthesizes workflows
-improves economic efficiency
-improves labour productivity
-belief that humans are like machines, and are satisfied by money alone
-Protestant work ethic!
Maslow’s Theory of Needs:
--Self actualization--
-------Esteem Needs-------
---------------Social Needs---------------
-------------------Safety needs-------------------
------------------------Physiological Needs----------------------
-Motivation is driven by the existence of unsatisfied needs
-Therefore worthwhile for manager to understand which are most important for the
individual
-When a need is mostly satisfied, it no longer motivates.
Herzberg’s Motivation / Hygiene Theory:
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