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Chapter 10

Chapter 10 notes

Rotman Commerce
Course Code
Michael Szlachta

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Chapter 10
Forms of employee behavior
Employee behavior – the pattern of actions by the members of an organization that directly
or indirectly influences the organization’s effectiveness
Performance behaviors – the behaviors directly targeted at performing a job
Organizational citizenship – provide positive benefits to the organization but in more
indirect ways
An employee who works late and takes time to help newcomers is a good
organizational citizen
Counterproductive behaviors – behaviors that detract from organizational performance
Absenteeism – occurs when an employee does not show up for work
Turnover – the percentage of an organization’s workforce that leaves and must be replaced
Individual difference among employees
Individual differences – physical, psychological, and emotional attributes that vary from
one person to another
Personality – the relatively stable set of psychological attributes that distinguishes one
person from another
Agreeableness is a person’s ability to get along with others
Conscientiousness refers to the number of things a person tries to accomplish
Emotionality refers to the degree to which people tend to be positive or negative in
their outlook and behaviors toward others
Extroversion refers to the a person’s comfort level with relationships
Openness reflects how open or rigid a person is in terms of his or her beliefs
Emotional intelligence, or emotional quotient (EQ) – the extent to which people possess
social skills, are self-aware, can manage their emotions, can motivate themselves, and can
express empathy for others
Job satisfaction – the degree of enjoyment that people derive from performing their jobs

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Organizational behavior – an individual’s identification with the organization and its
Highly committed employees see themselves as true members of the firm
Less committed employees are more likely to see themselves as outsiders
Matching people and jobs
Psychological contract – the set of expectations held by an employee concerning what he or
she will contribute to an organization and what the organization will provide to the
employee in return
Person-job fit – the extent to which a person’s contributions and the organization’s
inducements match one another
Motivation in the workplace
Motivation – the set of forces that cause, focus, and sustain workers’ behaviors
Classical theory of motivation – workers are solely motivated by money
Frederick Taylor – β€œif workers are motivated by money, then paying them more would
prompt them to produce more
Scientific management – analyzing jobs in order to find better more efficient ways to
perform them
Hawthorne effect – the tendency for workers’ productivity to increase when they feel they
are receiving special attention from management
Human relations – the interactions between employers and employees and their attitudes
toward one another
Douglas McGregor concluded that managers had radically different beliefs about how best
to use the human resources at a firm’s disposal
Theory X – a management approach based on the belief that people must be forced to be
productive because they are naturally lazy, irresponsible, and uncooperative
Theory Y – a management approach based on the belief that people want to be productive
because they are naturally energetic, responsible, and co-operative
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