RSM100Y1 Chapter Notes - Chapter 8: Human Resource Management, Job Analysis, Job Performance

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19 Apr 2012
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CHAPTER 8 MANAGING HUMAN RESOURCES
Human resource management (HRM) set of organizational activities directed at attracting,
developing, and maintaining an effective workforce. Takes place w/in a complex and ever-
changing env’tal context and is increasingly being recognized for its strategic importance
o Strategic Importance of HRM
Sometimes called personell. Now its importance stems from increased legal
complexities, the recognition that human resources are a valuable means for
improving productivity, and the awareness of the costs associated w/ poor
human resource management.
Impact on a firm’s bottom-line performance
Poor HRM can result in spurts of hiring followed by layoffs- costly in terms of
unemployment compensation ypayments, training expenses, and morale.
o Human resource planning
It’s the starting point in attracting qualified human resources.
=HR planning involves job analysis and forecasting the demand for and supply of
labour
JOB ANALYSIS
o Job analysis: detailed study of the specific duties in a particular
job and the human qualities required for that job
o Job description: the duties of a job, its working conditions, and
the tools, materials, and equipment used to perform it
o Job specification: the skills, abilities, and other credentials
needed to
FORECASTING HR DEMAND AND SUPPLY
o After managers have analyzed the jobs that must be performed
w/in an org, they can start planning for the org’s future HR
needs
They start by assessing trends in past HR usage, future
organizational plans, gral. Econ. Trends
Good sale forefast is often the foundation,
especially for smaller org’s
Historical data can then be used to predict
demand for diff. types of employees, such as
operating employees and sales representatives
o Forecasting the supply of labor involves 2 tasks
Forecasting internal supply: # and type of employees
who’ll be in the firm at some future date
Forecasting external supply: # /type of ppl who will be
available for hiring from the labor market at large
o Large org’s use extremely sophisticated models to keep track of
the present/future distributions of professionals and managers
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Replacement charts: an HR technique that lists each
imp. Managerial position, who occupies it, how long
he/she will probably stay in it before moving on, and
who (by name) is now qualified or soon will be qualified
to imove into it. This technique allows ample time to
plan dev’tal experiences for ppl identified as potential
successors to critical managerial jobs
Skills inventory: competerized systems that contain info
on each empoyee’s education, skills, work experience,
and career aspirations. can facilitate both
planning/identifying ppl for transfer/promotion
Forecasting the external supply of labour is a
diff. problem altogether.
MATCHING HR SUPPLY AND DEMAND
o After comparing future D and internal S, managers can make
plans to manage predicted shortfalls or overstaffing
STAFFING THE ORG’N
o Study has found that the top 3 characteristics empoyers are looking for when they hire
ppl are:
Good work ethic
Reliability
Willingness to stay on the job
o *staffing of the business is one of the most complex and imp. Aspects of good HR manag
o Recruiting Human Resources
Recruiting = the process of attracting qualified persons to apply for the jobs
that’re open
Internal Recruting= considering present employees as candidates for
openings
External recruiting = attracting ppl outside the org. to apply for jobs
o Methods for this includes: newspaper;enternet advertising;
campus interviews; employment agencies, etc…
o Internships: ST paid positions where students focus on a
specific project
o Selecting HR
Validation: the process of determining the predictive value of info
Application forms efficient method of gatering info about the
applicant’s previous work history, educational background, and other
job-related. Grally used informally to decide whether a candidate merits
further evaluation, and interviewers use app forms to familiarize
themselves w/ candidates b4 interviewing them
Tests
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o Must be job related an must be a valid predictor of
performance. They should be administered and scored
consistently, and all candidates should be give same
directions/time/env’t
Assessment centre: a series of exercises in which
candidates perform realistic management tasks under
the watchful eye of expert appraisers
Video assessment: potential hires are shown videos of
realistic work situations and are then asked to choose a
course of action to deal w/ the situation
+ reliable, cheap and versatile
Interviews : popular selection device.. but sometimes poor predictor of
job success b/c biases … first impression…etc…
o Behavior based interviewing: an approach to improving
interview validity by asking ?’s which focus the interview muce >
on behavior than on what a person says.
Approach to improving interview validity
Other techniques
o Ex. Physical examination
DEVELOPING HUMAN RESOURCES
o Regardless of how effective a selection system is, most employees need additional
training if they’re to grow/develop in their jobs. begins w/ orientation proceeds to
the assessment of training and dev’t needs and the selection of the best training
techniques/methods
o New Employee orientation
Orientation: the process of introducing new employees to the company’s
policies and programs, the co-workers and supervisors they’ll interact w/, and
the nature of their job
o Training and Dev’t
1)conducting a needs analysis determingn the org’s true needs and the
training programs necessary to meet them. Analysis focuses on 2 things
Org’s job related needs (determined by the nature of the work that the
org. needs to have done)
Capabilities of the current workforce
Work-based programs (On-the-job training)
Work based program: technique that ties training and dev’t activities
directly to task performance
On the job training: those dev’t programs in which employees gain new
skills while performing them at work
Systematic job rotations and transfers: a technique in wich an
employee is systematically rotated/transferred from 1 job to another
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