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Chapter 1

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Margaret Gassanov;

Industrialization: aspect of accumulation and processing of resources an industrial society has sources of energy like coal/electricity fueling a production system that uses techn to process RAW materials Capitalism: economic and social organization of production capitalist system a small number of ppl own/control means of creating goods/services while the majority with no ownership stake in the economy and are paid wage to work for owners Origins of Industrial Capitalism -emergence of capitalism consisted of 2 basic periods 1) mercantile 2) commercial capitalism Mercantileà international trade of foods linking Americas, Europe and Africa pillage and trade allowed the growth of industrial capitalism - early signs of capitalist commercial activity emerged from feudal society; the industrial rev did not begin Feudal society - people farmed land they didn’t own giving money to landowners in the form of agriculture - it was a premarket economy (the producer is the consumer) - it was a precapitalist economy (labour was rare and the business class is not dominant) - feudal lords except rent and expected service of manual labour in exchange for protection * feudalism is based on mutal rights and obligations reinforced by tradition - decay of feudalism led to capitalism? Not sure Early Industrial capitalism (artisians) - putting out system which merchants gave work to peasant houses with workshops making goods - more trade and transportation with new inventions like the railway and militaries improved weapons , steam engine - * inventions created a new form of work : INDUSTRIAL MILL: many machines are harnessed to one energy source under the roof of managers.. but bad working conditions - artisians resisted this trend because before they controlled their own labour - Luddites ( unemployed craftsmen) were skilled workers but techn was making their skills obsolete - emergence of industrial capitalism also changed gender based division of labour the putting out system, especially the textile industries made men and women work. Women could balance home/work texile included men, women, kids manufacturing had men * gender division was more pronounced with the rise of industrial capitalism Great transformation - factories in capitalist society with more machines - manufacturing and service INCREASE agriculture DECREASED - 19 century industrial capitalism was the dominant system of production - ****great transformations are growth of capital, commodity and labour markets; the foundation of capitalism changed society… growth of cities, government, economy -market system for fianance- employees paid set amount of wage for work, conditions of work is set - artisians lost out to factory system - change that created the market economy also lead to problems of controlling, coordinating and managing work Canada industrialization - Canada is a colony of britan- provided raw materials rather than produce finished goods - EXPORT staple products like timber/fur and made transportation (railways) to link trade Pre Industrial Canada th - 19 century - most production/consumption took place at home - more immigration (esp Europe) - shortages of urban factory jobs and little available agricultural land - most trued to find jobs in US - Canadians were employed at Welland and Rideau canal - lots of unskilled workers thus more seasonal jobs with long hrs and low pay - Poverty Industrial Era - 1840s Canadas economy was agrarian even though the 2 key parts for industrialization 1_ available labour force 2) transportation infustructure was in place - 1867 manufacturing is popular, creating deindustrialization in the maritimaes - montreal/to had access to us market and railways so become industrial heartland - With industrialization Canada become less agricultural (7 in the world for manufacturing) - more factories in Canada (even us built factories in Canada to avoid tariffs on goods imported from the us) this created foreign investment and Urban growth - bad labour laws and no unions, unsanitary housing no health care * despite economic development following confederation, poverty occurred in manufacturing areas Decline of Craftwork - skilled craftwork ( made their own pay/conditions) declined - dividing craft jobs in simple tasks allowed work to be preformed by less skilled ppl with low pay -** mechanization cut costs increasing productivity - strikes “crisis of the craftsman” - many works were employed in railway construction, mining and lumber - railways led to demand for coal.. mines were dangerous and led to strikes, union organization and political action Rethinking Industrialization - Industrial countries are urbanized, large production, technology, white collar workers make up the workforce, educated workdforce, training ** Logic of industrialism thesis: industrialism is so powerful that any country no matter its original characteristics will resemble other industrialized countries. Inevitability of industrial technology. - this logic is restated as a thesis of economic, political and cultural convergence there is no logic of industrialism patterns in industrial countries show this is false bc of vatiation in unemployment rates, unionization, education and training - canadas industrialization was shaped by its colony status, immigration created workforce, and resource industries played a central role in industrialization - places like mexico/brazil had rapid industrialization with a growth of inequality - table on p12 compares 19 countries- each with diff pop/income/econ growth SOC207 Chapter 1 Capitalism, Industrialization, and Post-Industrial Society Pages 1-14  Farming has been replaced by industrial work, and then again by white-collar, retail and knowledge jobs  Today most people for wages/salaries in bureaucratic organizations  Industrialization: refers to the technical aspects of the accumulation and processing of a society’s resources  Capitalism: a term used to describe key aspects of the economic and social organization of the productive enterprise o A system of production in which the means for producing goods are owned by a relatively small number of individuals, the majority of people have no direct ownership stake in the economy, and are paid a wage to work for those who do so The origins of Industrial Capitalism  Capitalism and industrialization dramatically reshaped the structure of European society, but took centuries to do so o Different pace and pattern in each country  Emergence of capitalism in Europe consisted of two periods o Mercantile/commercial capitalism (began in 1500s)  Merchants and royals accumulated huge fortunes by trading internationally in a variety of goods (Spain, France, Holland, England)  Elaborate trade network evolved, linking Africa, Asian, and the American Colonies with Europe  This global trade fueled the growth of industrial capitalism o Industrial capitalism  Early signs of capitalism emerged out of a feudal society  Industrial revolution had not yet begun  Class structure: small aristocracy/merchant class (most in cities), a rural landowning class, and a large rural peasantry  Work usually involved peasants farming the land they didn’t own  Landowners received rent (generally agricultural produce)  Feudal society was a pre-market economy o Producer was also the consumer  Was also a pre-capitalist economy o Wage labour was rare o Business class not yet dominant  Feudal lords accepted rent in the form of labour and in turn allowed tenancy relationships to continue and provided some protection o Thus feudalism was built upon mutual rights, obligations, reinforced by tradition  Debate on whether feudalism led to the rise of capitalism or the other way around Early capitalism  Industrial capitalism began to emerge in the 1700s  Production of goods by artisans, or by the putting out system (merchant distributed work to peasant households), led to large workshops  New techniques/inventions revolutionized production techniques o New form of work organization: industrial mill o Had immense social implications: many workers under one roof and the control of managers o Growing class of impoverished wage labourers endured horrific working conditions o Some workers resisted this trend (particularly artisans)  Emergence of industrial capitalism also changed the gender-based division of labour o In feudal times, both men and women worked out of the home o Women were able to do paid labour under the putting out system o But as manufacturing developed, it became a man’s job o Gendered division had always existed but increased with capitalism The Great Transformation  In a matter of decades, factory production dominated capitalist society  Manufacturing cities grew to accommodate the new wage labour force  1800’s saw even faster movement into factory-based production  By the end of the 1800’s, industrial capitalism was clearly the dominant system of production in Western nations  Karl Polanyi- The great transformation o Swept Europe with the growth and integration of capital, commodity, and labour markets o Left no aspect of social life untouched o Struggle for democratic forms of government, the emergence of the modern nation state, and the rapid growth of cities are all directly linked to these economic changes  The relatively stable landlord-serf relationships of feudalism were replaced by wage-labour relationships between capitalists and labourers  Employers paid for the work, but also determined the working conditions  Independent artisans lost out to the factory system  In the end, the result was a higher standard of living  But these changes also led to the new problems of controlling, coordinating and managing work Canada’s Industrialization  Process of industrialization in Canada lagged behind that of Britain and the United States, can be traced back to the mid 1800s  Canada’s role had been to provide raw materials  Focused on traditional activities such as exporting staple products and developing transportation networks that could link resource-producing regions with exporting regions. Work in Pre-Industrial Canada th  For the first half of the 19 century, Canada still had a premarket economy  At the same time, immigration from Europe was increasing  The majority of these immigrants sought employment in the US, where factory jobs and land were more plentiful  Some immigrants who stayed in Canada were employed in transportation megaprojects (Rideau/Welland Canals) o Influx of unskilled workers created a demand for such seasonal jobs o These jobs had long work hours and paid poorly o Poverty was widespread The Industrial Era  By the 1840s, Canada’s population was still relatively agrarian, although the did have the two ingredients for industrialization o Labour force and a transportation infrastructure  Canada’s first factories were in Nova Scotia (prior to Confederation)  After Confederation, manufacturing became centralized in Quebec and Ontario. This resulted in the deindustrialization of the Maritimes  American firms built factories in Canada close to the border to avoid Canadian tariffs on good imported from the US  These economic changes brought about new social problems o Worker exploitations (because labour laws/unions are still absent) o Low pay, long hours, unsafe/unhealthy working conditions o Health care and social services were almost nonexistent The decline of Craftwork  Traditionally craftworkers had the advantages of being able to determine their own working conditions, hire their own apprentices and usually set their own pay o This craft control declined as Canada moved into the Industrial Era o Dividing craft jobs into many simple tasks allowed for work to be performed by less skilled and lower paid employees o Mechanization further cut costs while increasing productivity  While there were large numbers of skilled workers experiencing the “crisis of the craftsmen”, there were larger numbers of unskilled manual labourers looking for work who’s only opportunity was this kind of factory work.  Immigrants were good candidates for railway construction, mining, lumber o Unlikely to oppose their bosses  Creation of a transcontinental railway increased demand for coal o Mines were opened in Vancouver- immigrants took jobs o A lot of work for little pay, unsafe work o These dangerous conditions led to the formation of unions, strikes Rethinking Industrialization  Industrialized countries tend to be more urbanized, production takes place on a large scale using complex technologies, workplaces tend to be organized bureaucratically, and white-collar workers make up most of the workforce  Citizens are generally
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