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Canada (162,165)
Sociology (1,513)
SOC101Y1 (470)
Chapter 8

SOC101Y1 Chapter 8: Week 8 Reading: Class, Work and the Economy
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Department
Sociology
Course
SOC101Y1
Professor
Christian O.Caron
Semester
Fall

Description
Class, Work and the Economy Conformity: (Soloman Ash experiment) 1. To fit in with the group 2. The group is better informed than they are Groups - Shapes our actions through socialization and social interaction - Shape sense of identity, belonging and self - We define ourselves with the groups we used to belong, belong now, and groups we would like to belong in the future Universe of Obligation: call for exclusion of whole categories of population - Recognize the sanctity of human life is a prerequisite of moral action - Other people's needs, welfare, health constitutes a challenge and admonition of all other members of the same universe of obligation Income Equality in Canada - Economic prosperity has made Canada one of the best countries in the world - However, there has been an increase in income inequality - Income has not grown proportionate to working harder and longer - Income: the economic gain derived from wages, salaries, income transfers and ownership of property - Wealth: assets - Factors in economic success: - Degree of natural talent - Degree of effort - Level of education - Social capital: network or connections - Cultural capital: stock of learning and skills that increases chance of securing a superior job Income and Poverty - Low-income cut off: when more than 63% of gross income is spent on food, shelter, and clothing - Debate over: - Whether definition be absolute or relative terms - Absolute: focuses on essentials - Relative: may define poverty in terms of economic measures or more broadly in terms of community - Whether definition be based on income or consumption Defining Poverty: have political consequences because of ability to influence policy-makers, who determine whether social policies are enacted or not based on levels and trends in poverty Politics: reshape distribution of income and systems of equality in various ways - Enacting various legislations for businesses - Entitling people to various welfare benefits - Redistributing income through tax policies - By failing to either maintain or expand welfare benefits Explaining Poverty - Individual level: focus on attributes of people who are poor and ask how these people differ from those who are not poor - Causes of poverty are located in personal deficits - Inherited attributes (low IQ, behaviour abnormalities) - Acquired attributes or stigmas (lack of achievements, motivation, low self- esteem) - Evidence supporting these explanations often lacking - Structural explanations: stress social organization of society, or subsystems in society, that contribute to poverty - Economy with cyclical booms and bust (periods of low unemployment and high profits followed by high unemployment and low profits) and lack of good jobs - Social Policy (minimum wage legislation) - System of tax collection and tax allocation - Ideological Perspectives which underscale certain groups and lead to discrimination Social Stratification: the hierarchical arrangement of large social groups based on their control over basic resources - Based on four basic principles 1. Trait of society, not a reflection of individual differences 2. Carries over from generation to generation 3. Is universal but variable 4. Involves inequality and beliefs - Stratification Study: 1. Structure of inequality 2. Movement of people between layers 3. How and why equality varies over time and place 4. Micro level; daily interaction reinforce and subvert social hierarchies - Open Stratification System: merit, rather than inheritance, determines the social rank and in which social changes is possible (ie. Canada) - Closed Stratification System: based on inheritance - Caste System: where the caste of the individual is born largely determines what type of work that he or she will be allowed to do Meritocracy: social stratification based on personal merit - Research shows a persistent link between family advantage and children’s educational achievement - Factors include: - Access to education - Aspirations - Time Available - Human Capital Theories of Stratification - Marx: Capitalism, Exploitation & Class Conflict - Bourgeoisie (Capitalist Class): consists of those who own the means of productions - land and capital necessary for factories and mines - Proletariat (Working Class): consists of those who must sell their labour to the owners in order to earn enough money to survive - Petite Bourgeoisie (Middle Class): independent owners/ producers and small
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