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SOC101Y1 (470)
Chapter 1

notes sociology chapter 1 and 2 IMPORTANT THEORIES.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Robert Brym

The term sociology was coined by the french social thinker Auguste Comte in 1838Scientific social and political revolutionSociological research was motivated by adherence to scientific methods of research and a vision of the ideal society Karl Marx Emilie Durkheim and Max Weberlived in the period from 1920 to 1920TheoriesResearch and ValuesTheoryis a tentive explanation of some aspect of social life that states how and why certain facts are relatedResearchis the process of carefully observing social reality to assess the validity of a theory Values are ideas about what is right and wronggood and bad Weber Durkheim and Marx initiated 3 of the major theoretical traditions is sociology o Functionalism o Conflict theoryo Symbolic interactionism The fourth one is feminism but it risen in the last decades Functionalism Durkheims theory of suicideis an example of functionalismeverybody serves a function within society Functionalist theories incorporate 4 features o The human being is governed by stable pattern of social relations or social structuressocial solidarityo Social structures maintain or undermine social stability industries lowered social solidarity high strike rates and suicideo Social strucutures are based mainly on shared values the frequency and intensity of social interaction solidarity binds people together o suggests that reestablishing equilibrium can be best solve most social problemfind a solution to problems lowering expectations Talcott Parsonshow institutions must work to ensure the smooth operation of society as a whole He was criticized for
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