A common language that allows us to communicate with others is essential, as is
knowledge about norms, laws, attitudes, beliefs and values.
Diversity is valued and women and men are considered equal.
To interact with others we need a self, a sense of individual identity that allows us to
understand who we are in relation to others and to differentiate ourselves from them.
The sense of self allows us to react to what we learned so that once we know what is
expected of us in any given situation, we can choose whether or not to behave in ways
consistent with those expectations.
We are constrained by societal norms and values, we are free to decide how to behave.
Nobody comes into the world preprogrammed with a sense of self and the knowledge to
interaction act appropriately with others.
To learn this way of life in society and develop an identity the Undergo a process of
social interaction known as socialization. Socialization is the vital link between individuals and society neither can exist without
Socialization make social interaction, social order and social organization possible.
Socialization helps to explain both similarities and differences among people in
Primarysocializationis a crucial learning process that occurs in childhood Anish initiate by
Secondarysocializationoccurs after people have already undergone primary socialization.
It is not secondary importance, as we address the ongoing nature socialization and
considering socialization to the lifecycle.
Nature and Nurture
The debate over whether biological inheritance or social environment is more important
shaping our beliefs and behavior is an old one.
We can deny that some human behavior the outcome of biological factors.
Nature and nurture are inseparable.
The human brain provides the physiological apparatus required for interpreting
experiences, but unless children had the opportunity to learn, reason and solve
problems in early life, the brain itself may not fully developed.
Attempt to determine the relative importance of nature and nurture in human
development are much like trying to tell us whether width or height is more significant in
Studies of children raised in isolation by their families also provide convincing evidence
for the need for interaction.
The importance of social contact in the development of human infants is evident as well
as in research on institutionalized children.
Without human contact, socialization is impaired, the individual is but a shell of a human
being, and irreversible damage may be done to the persons sense of self.
TheSelfandSocialization Socialization begins with the development of a self.
Sigmund Freud was among the first to emphasize the strong social roots of the
emergence of the self.
Sigmund Freud proposed one of the first social scientific interpretations of the process
by which the self emerges.
He noted that infants demand immediate gratification but begin to form a self image
when their demands are denied.
The infant begins to sense that its needs differ from those of his parents, it has an
existence independent of others and it must somehow balance its needs with the
realities of life.
Because of many lessons in self-control, the child eventually develops a sense of what
constitutes appropriate behavior and a moral sense of right and wrong.
Freud argued that only social interaction allows the self to emerge.
Charles Horton Cooley
Cooley introduced the idea of the lookingglassself, suggesting that the gestures and
reactions of others are a mirror or Looking glass in which we see ourselves.
A mirror to see a reflection of our physical body, but we look to others to see reflection of
our social self.
The emphasis was less on the actual responses of others than on our own perception or
interpretation of those responses.
Without the social mirror, there can be no sense of self.
Self image emerges as a product of involvement in groups and communication with
The first images of the self are received from significantothers-closest to children during
the early stages of their lives.
The role-played by the individuals primaryGroup, the small group round is in which
interaction is characterized by intimate, face-to-face association and cooperation. George Herbert Mead
Mead explored the interplay between the individual and society.
His ideas became the foundation for Symbolic interactionism, which felt that societies
are essential to human development.
Thinking is possible only if we can communicate symbolically, and we learned to do so
by interacting with others.
Symbols are gestures, objects and sounds that stand for something else and whose
meaning depends on shared understanding.
The key to socialization, is the ability to take the role of the other.
Takingtheroleoftheotherinvolves anticipating how others will see and react to you.
Essential skill that children must develop to be effective members of society.
It must be acquired in three stages:
Theimitativestagein which children younger than two years old have no real conception
of themselves and their language skills are insufficiently developed.
When they play, they often act out the behaviors associated with certain rules -
mimicking or imitating them.
The playstage, children begin to adopt the rules of significant others - parents celebrities,
etc. - and their play shifts from imitative to imaginative.
They learned to imagine how people will respond without actually having to act out the
Through Language children can now manipulate various rules without physical action.
The role need not be firmly rooted in reality, can be defined according to the children’s
wishes or their desire to pleasing others.
The gamestage, during which children develop a generalized impression of the behavior
people expect and awareness of their own importance to the group and vice versa.
Metaphor of the game - used to describe the complex behavior required. In an organized game, a player must continually adjust behavior to the needs of the
team as a whole into the specific situations that arise in the game.
The generalizedother - conception of how people in general-not someone specific-
Then generalize other is internalized, comprises the values, attitudes and beliefs that
the individual understands to part of society and in terms of which the individual
assumes others will react.
In fact, the role of the generalized other means that we respond to our idea of the
organized group or community of which we are apart.
We observe the conduct and reactions of other people, ascertain their points of view,
anticipate what is expected of us and then plan, rehearse, modify and perfect our own
The “I” and the “Me”
The subjective part of the self is the “I” and the objective part the “me”.
The “I” acts, whereas, the “me” reflects on our actions through the lens of social norms,
values and beliefs.
The self is both spontaneous [I] and conformist [me], active [I] and reflective [me]
experiencing [I] and experienced [me].
Emphasize the degree to which identity formation continues among teens and young
For Willis, class, racial, ethnic, gender and regional differences are associated with
differences in socialization patterns.
The different institutions to which people belong provide them with relatively distinct
symbolic resources that influence how they can express themselves and how other see
These facts do not mean that people automatically learn the norms and values of social
context. They learned norms and values, but they also experiment and make choices in a variety
of socialization opportunities and are helped by cultural industries, who would seek to
profit from the desire of young people to have fun, express themselves and be stylish.
Links among creativity, identity and social context, Willis suggest that young people take
advantage of every opportunity to make the everyday world around them meaningful.
Human beings are creative and strategic social actors.
Groups and institutions to which you belong and your statusesare the culturally and
socially defined positions you occupy in your social interactions.
Gendersocializationis the process through which individuals learn to become feminine
and masculine according to expectations current in their society.
From an early age, children show marked gender specific preferences for certain toys
These preferences are reinforced in later years.
Parents are usually the first source of children’s gender learning and the mass media
also present idealized images and stereotypes of appropriate masculine and feminine
Oversimplified gender- role stereotypes affected childrens self-concept and interaction
with peers and adults.
Stereotyping contributes to the streaming of males and females in traditional male and
The study of gender shows us that children and adults are socialized respond to their
social world by developing certain potentials and inhibiting others.
Biological differences between the sexes have an impact on behavior.
Symbolic interactionist have shown that gender is also acquired through interaction with
parents, teachers and peers as these unfold within the larger context of societies
Socializationsinthelifecourse Childhood socialization as the primary socialization because it lays the foundation that
influences our self-concept and involvement in social life.
Adolescence and youth
Dramatic transformations of identity, status and social relationships occurred
Socialization during adolescence requires that we find some balance between
autonomy and conformity, freedom and constraint.
North America is characterized by the decline in adult supervision and guidance,
Increasing the influence of the mass media, peer groups and the greater assumption of
Adolescent identity crisis are unknown in premodern societies, where adolescence does
not exist as a separate and prolonged stage of life and young people marry by the age
of 16 and either establish their own household or remain at home yet assume adult
Adolescence as a distinct period of life is a product of industrialization and the extension
of education that in it introduced.
Mass education compulsory school attendance altered the role of the family and helped
give rise adolescents.
Young people are required to remain in school and not expected to assume economic
responsibilities until they reached sexual maturity.
In modern high school, students became educated in skills and knowledge that the
family was not equipped to impart, the distinctiveness of adolescents as a stage of life
Parents and teenagers often claim that openness is the route to intimacy, but young
people experience rules imposed by the parents, who are often unwilling to
Exercise control and seek to monitor the adolescent behavior.
This causes resentment among adolescents, who realize that parent-teenager
relationships often lack open communication. After after parents demand more and more information, the relationship moves further
away from friendship.
Peer Influence promotes useful it autonomy.
Anticipatorysocializationis the process by which aspirants to a particular social role begin
to discern what it will be like to function in that position.
Through interaction with people who act out various roles and by observing how rules
are portrayed in the mass media.
Adolescence learn to incorporate the perspectives and expectations of the larger society
and imagine what it would be like to enact the roles in which they aspire.
Individual rehearses for future positions, social relationships and even occupations.
Adultsocializationis the process by which adults take on new statuses and acquire new
and different social identities.
Unlike adolescents, adults have control over the content and direction of their
The set of “R” words serve as signposts of the changes taking place in the workplace
-Restructuring, Reorganization, Rationalizing and Reengineering.
Socialization among older adults
Our society extends little dignity to Aging.
Medical advances have prolonged lives, along relatively few meaningful roles and value
statuses for seniors.
Mass media depicts seniors as dependent or helpless.
Such portrayals reinforce ageism. Which is discriminatory practices based on age.
Ageists emphasize the declining abilities of older adults rather than their talents.
Agentsofsocialization Agentsofsocialization-individuals, groups and institutions that impart the range of
information required to interact effectively and participate in society.
Social institutions are institutions in which we interact with people.
They provide distinct context within which we can take on new ideas and roles,
institutions can serve as agents of socialization.
Parents are in a powerful position to influence that child.
The source of all rewards - through close interaction with parents and a small number of
other people, the child learns to think and speak; internalize norms, beliefs, and values;
forms basic attitudes; develops a capacity for Intimate and personal relationships; and
begins to develop a self-image.
Experiences modify what children learn in the family and what they bring into adult life;
the habits and expectations that characterized their childhood.
Families and Social Class
Families bestow statuses that significantly affect our lives and sense of self.
Class status does affect socialization styles.
The socialization styles characteristic of different classes strongly in influence children’s
aspirations, educational attainment and occupational trajectories.
Families and Ethnicity
Socialization unfolds against a cultural backdrop and the cultures of ethnic groups can
and do shape socialization experiences.
Ethnic cultures do not determine educational and occupational success, but they do
influence the range of possibilities the individual is encouraged to consider.
Diverse family forms
Ever-increasing diversity of forms taken by the family.
Dependence on parents declines as children grow up and start interacting with peers
and adults other than their parents. Peers and other adults offer approval, emotional support and views of reality that may
differ from those of ones parents.
The circumstances set up new challenges in the socialization process.
Schools have been the settings where social learning is just as important as learning