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SOC101Y1 (470)
Chapter 5

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Christian O.Caron

Chapter 5 - Groups and Organizations SocialGroups Groups, Aggregates and Categories A Social Group is a collection of two or more people who interact frequently with one another, share a sense of belonging and have a feeling of interdependence. Aggregate-A collection of people who happen to be in the same place at the same time but have little else in common. Category-A number of people who may never have met one another but who share similar characteristics. (not social groups) A formal organization - A structured group formed to achieve specific goals in the most efficient manner. Types of Groups Primary and Secondary Groups Primary Group - Describe small, less specialized group in which members engage in face-to-face, emotion-based interactions over an extended time. Secondary Group - A larger, more specialized group in which members engage in more impersonal, goal-oriented relationships for a limited time. Formal organizations are secondary groups, also contain many primary groups within. Ingroups and Outgroups Ingroup-A group to which a person belongs and with which the person feels a sense of identity. Outgroup- A group to which a person does not belong and toward which the person may feel a sense of competitiveness or hostility. Ingroups and Outgroups may encourage social cohesion, but they also promote classism, racism, sexism and ageism. Ethnocentrism can occur. Reference Groups ReferenceGroup-A group that strongly influences a person’s behaviour and social attitudes, regardless of whether that individual is an actual member. Networks Network-A web of social relationships that link one person with other people and through them, with more people that those people know. It’s a Small World: Network of Acquaintances (Milgram’s theory) Pg. 163 GroupCharacteristicsandDynamics According to functionalists, groups meet peoples instrumental and expressive needs. Instrumental - task-oriented- needs cannot always be met by one person, so the group works together to fulfill a specific goal. Expressive - emotional needs - For self-expression and support from family, friends and peers. Conflict Theorists - suggest that groups also involve power relationships whereby the needs of individual members may not be equally served. Symbolic Interactionists - focus on how the size of a group influences the kind of interaction that takes place among members. Group Size SmallGroup-A collectivity small enough for all members to be acquainted with one another and to interact simultaneously. Dyad-A group consisting of two members. - Provide an intense bond and a sense of unity not found in larger groups. - Active participation of both members is necessary for the group’s survival. Triad-A group composed of three members. - Group can still function without the participation of one member. Coalition - an alliance created in an attempt to reach a shared objective or goal. Group Conformity Conformity-The process of maintaining or changing behaviour to comply with the norms established by a society, subculture or other group. Asch’s Research They had known the answers were wrong, but decided to go along with the group to avoid ridicule or ostracism. Milgram’s Research on Obedience Milgram wanted to understand atrocities, like the Holocaust, where citizens behaved brutally when they were ordered by authority to do so. The shock study: In which Milgram had his assistant sit in an “electric chair” whilst the “teacher” was told by the researcher to enact high voltages for every wrong answer. According to Milgram, The teachers- who could freely leave - continued with the experiment because they were being given directions by a person of authority. Obedience to Authority is common and many individuals are willing to enact their orders from authority figures regardless of the pain caused to them and the victim. Group Think Groupthink-The process by which members of a cohesive group arrive at a decision that many individual members privately believe is unwise. Members often withhold their opinions and follow the consensus, rather than the best decision. FormalOrga
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