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SOC101Y1 (470)


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University of Toronto St. George
Brent Berry

SOC205H1 NOTES: LECTURE 2 NOTES SEPTEMBER 22, 2011 More or less reading my notes… Exactly what was in the book. Characteristics of Early Cities - Early cities tended to rely on dominant authority groups - Never grew continuously (jerusalem) (because of warfare, sanitation, plagues, etc) -All cities require hinterland (area around the city that provides resources) The Agricultural Revolution - Was a precursor for modern cities - Stages are: - Domestication of plants/animals, permanent settlements, mechanization of agriculture, food surplus, more complex division of labour, greater hierarchy in society, creation of administrative structures - Social inequality rises with changes in redistribution process that develops with cities Capitalism, Industrialism and the City - Feudal and post-feudal period - Rise of craft production, money exchange, and trade - Creation of the market economy - Industrial revolution (1700-1850) - Changed dynamics of labour - who did it, where it took place, quantities produced, family life Colonialism and the Rise of New Cities - Empires created administrative centres - Served as intermediaries between empire and hinterland - Created social polarity - Serve as major conduit of foreign trade - Ultimately did not work well Urban Restructuring and the World Economy - Global cities - Horizontal integration - Vertical disintegration - Deindustrialization - Post industrial cities -- what makes them work? - Global differences in cities The New Urban Order - Role of multinational corporation - Characteristics of world/global cities - Canada's global cities Chapter 3:Analyzing and interpreting the city: Theory and Method - The culturalist orientation deals with the experimental aspect of cities, addressing how urban life feels, how people react to living in an urban setting, and how the city organizes personal lives - spatial - realist - The structuralist orientation holds that the ultimate causes of urban ways of thinking and acting are found externally in wider patterns of power and wealth in society - associational emphasis - constructionist interpretation THE CHICAGO SCHOOL - source of the first major body of work in urban sociology beginning in the 1920s and 1930s - focused on forms of cities, their development, and the outcomes of people competing for unequal spaces - emphasized how human behaviour was determined more by social structure and physical environments rather than genetic or personal characteristics city functions as a microcosm -- the natural environment in which the community inhabits & shapes human behaviour - combined theory and ethnographic fieldwork in studying chicago - originated the symbolic interactionist approach, social disorganization theory, subcultural theory, and the methods for ecological analysis - ecological studies (eg, making spot maps of place of specific behaviours, alcoholism, homicides, suicides, poverty, and then computing rates based on census… visual map - 1915, Park published key essay, "The City" - Park was interested in 1) evolving physical form of the city (its different types of land uses -> human ecological perspective 2) how the city was composed of mix of different social worlds (natural worlds), each with its own distinct language, traditions, and way of life -> urban ethnography - Yet, all studies instigated by Park lacked any explicit discussion of the methodologies employed (except Cressey's 1932 Taxi-Dance Hall) Chicago School Contributor -- Luis Wirth - Family immigrated from Germany to US Midwest when he was 14; lived adult life in Chicago - He studied how immigrant groups adjusted to urban life, and the distinct social processes of the city - Believed in the potential of sociology for solving real problems (strong supporter of applied sociology) - Found both positive and negative effects of city life - had a profound interest and understanding of minority groups Urbanism as a way of life (1938) - Classic essay in urban sociology for its contribution to theory of urbanism - urban lifestyle - function of population density, size, and heterogeneity - Negative effects of urbanism - urbanism is a form of social organization that can harm culture - secondary instead of primary contacts. less family/kinship - disappearance of neighbourhood and less traditional social solidarity - lowering reproductive rates and postponing marriage - more single people and social isolation - Positive effects of urbanism - the growth of cities has had a modernizing effect on civilization - more optimism for science and machine to solve fundo problems - there was a tendency to view cities from a functionalist perspective - freedom tolerance progress invention rationality (history of civ is a history of cities) - economics Five Theoretical Models 1) Human Ecology Model - role of underlying economic principles - method: social area analysis and factorial ecology - park conceptualized human ecology as the breakdown of the city into separate communities bounded by transportation or other barriers within which distinct cultures developed - park and burgess 'concentric zone' model of urban growth - specialization and the segregation of dissimilar populations and land uses; the centralization of popular and specialized services and activities ; population concentration as the result of concentrated patterns of commercial and industrial growth example = class, ethnicity, and race are important in indicating where residents of ontario urban centres live. 2) Community Studies Model - uncover evidence of social ties and supportive relations in a city - weakness: focus on processes internal to the community 3) Social Interactionist Model - people in the city maintained close ties with one another, as opposed to being isolated and anonymous - common interests in a wide variety of political, religious, and leisure pursuits - diverse subcultures, familiar strangers - dramaturgical interpretation, seeks to identify ways in which smaller units of space shape social life in the city - weakness is that it doesn't address issues of power, governance, inequality and conflict 4) Political Economy Model - cities are shaped by actions of powerful economic and political players who control key resources - urban patterns and social life are dominated by racial, ethnic, and class antagonisms - the state continues to be a significant force in urban life - connections to the system of capitalism and global dynamics - capital accumulation and exploitation - weakness: doesn't have much empirical evidence in support of its claims/repetitive 5) Socially Construct Model - negotiation of cultural meaning involving different individuals, groups, and organizations for hegemony - who's meaning triumphs depends on the degree of power possessed by various social actors - social spatialization to designate how particular places are defined as good, bad, sites of danger, or sites of work - will michelson (1973 uoft) proposed environmental-opportunity theory Chapter 4: Rural and Urban: Differences and Common Ground - Urban vs Rural - shifting definitions and status over time, cities are insufferable!!! rurals are behind the times!!! - all depends on POV's - greater blurring recently - more uses of rural areas, fewer engaged in primary production, similar avail of goods - low density vs high density living - primary difference, or is there more? - Rural Canada: - inextricable link to urban canada - cultural identity/history is strongly influenced by rural - Urbanization is relatively new - rural is defined by: - geographical -- population density and distance? - a social construction -- eg, site of extraction or preservation? - it is a contested definition - History of the transformation in Rural Society - Short distance society - activity flows to a single sphere, high overlap of community systems - Industrial society - scale, hierarchy, centralization, consolidation, focus on national metrics (e.g. GDP), separation of community systems (fordist means the use of assembly lines, standardization etc) - The Arena society - community systems unsynchronized/non-coherent, high personal mobility, flexible production, just in time - New Rural Economy in Canada - more diverse and complex - no longer only farms etc - proximity to urban centers important - constantly changing, heterogenous - services and amenities are growing - more mobile - a small increase in population - improved technology - external relations more important Rural-Urban Interdependence - through exchange and trade - through institutions - through shared environments, water etc - through shared and complementary identities Megalopolis - it is an extensive metropolitan area or a long chain of continuous metropolitan areas - first used by jean gottman in 1957 to describe the US east, such as boston/washington etc - earlier urban sociologists were overly optimistic for megalopolis' to solve problems of living - environmental health Chapter 5: Social Ties and Community in Urban Places Ferdinand Tonnies identified: - Gemeinschaft (community) - social relationships that included neighbourliness and informal social control and that valued the needs of the group over the individual. - described as a sense of togetherness based on commonality, physical proximity, and stability. - in villages and small towns, gemeinschaft dominated. - Gesellschaft is a direct result of the transformation from a folk-type society to a modern, urban, capitalist society, impersonal, individualistic - Durkheim also used the terms "mechanical solidarity" to define homogenous, and "organic solidarity" to describe impersonal, bureaucratic control - Robert Park - he argued that "modern methods of urban transportation and communication have silently and rapidly changed in recent years the social and industrial organizations of the modern city" - shift from primary relations (face-to-face) to secondary relations (exchange between strangers or routine instrumental interactions) - Wirth - he argued that size density and heterogeneity of the modern city alienate individuals - for examples, size of the urban enviro made it impossible for all urban residents to know each other - density and heterogeneity of urban environment led people to live in homogenous groups -> increase segmentation Urbanization and Community - Stanley Milgram argued that urban environment was itself responsible for atrophy of community and traditional way of life (pessimistic view) - Claude Fisher -- subculture theory -- that people form social ties through shared interests and mutual ID, rather than simply on shared location - Ethnography or 'participant observation' is the study of people in their natural settings. - Ethnographic approaches transformed sociological understanding of relationships in the city and suburbs. - poor immigrant slums = supportive stable trusting social relations - Social network analysis/approach - both a theory and a method - definition of 'social network analysis' (examine the relationships between social actors-people, organizations, and institutions) Hence, 'community' is defined as a network of social relations (and independent of shared places) - researchers are concerned with nodes or actors and the ties between them At least 9 dimensions of network variation Network size, (i.e. number of actors in a network, or the number of actors connected to the central actor under study). Frequency of contact between actors. Spatial proximity or availability of network members. Duration of a social tie, i.e., how long one actor has known another actor Multiplicity of a tie (i.e. number of different resources or types of support exchanged between actors) Density, or the number of ties present within a network based on the total number possible. Range or diversity, related to both the size and heterogeneity of a network, which is a measure of network composition. Centrality, a measure of actor or network control over the flow of information or resources. Tie strength- closeness or intimacy of a tie between actors (strong vs. weak ties) Granovetter: - weak ties (not close or intimate relationships) are important for the flow of resources - unique sources of information by bridging otherwise unconnected networks - these bridging ties are a source of unique information, important in search processes, finding a job etc - strong ties are chill, but everyone has access to the same info Robert Putnam says: - TV and generational change are the two most important contributors to the decline of recent social capital Chapter 6: Urban Inequality and Urban Social Movements Introduction - Third World? - the poorest nations in the world - often take debt to western banks or lending organizations - many depend on international aid to meet the basic needs of their population - the term 3rd world = LDC = emerging markets - Second World? - more advanced, socialist country with a planned economy - term disappeared, USSR - First World - same challenges, but problem of overconsumption rather than under - Poverty in Urban Canada - poverty does not only mean being totally destitute but refers also to those at the lower end of the income stream who, despite struggle, are unable to attain the standard of living typical among most canadians - poverty is not only in cities, but it has become increasingly concentrated in cities - canadas poverty does not even come close to approaching the rate in the US - Absolute poverty will refer to the income level needed for basic subsistence (food, shelter, housing) - Relative poverty establishes the forms of poverty that depend on community standards. ex: enough to eat, enough to sleep, lacks privacy. POOR. - LICO - Low income cut-offs - they are an income threshold below which a family will likely devote a larger share of its income to the necessities of food, shelter, and clothing than an average family would - market base measure includes costs of goods and services within a specific community that are needed by any household - - Trends in poverty in canada -canadian society, rich is getting richer, vice versa - higher rates of poverty in neighbourhoods with refugees, immigrants, aboriginal people ETC - Emergence of the urban GHETTO - 14th century = small neighbourhood - 20th century = place of segregation (social/eco/racial) - today = dense extreme poverty - in canada, 1/3rd of lone parent families live in high poverty - consequences of all this poverty, the intergenerational transmission of poverty (parent to child) makes it more intrasigent and inescapable with each new generation born after it - a slum is deteriorating areas inhabited by poor people - when a slum becomes a large area in which poor people seem trapped is referred to as a ghetto - gangs linked with urban poverty (outsiders think gangs are threatening, insiders think gangs are mechanisms to deal with ones disadvantaged position - homelessness is an extreme form of poverty - previous image of homeless (alcoholics etc), new homeless (could be everyone) - causes of homelessness 1) urban renewal eliminated low cost rental housing 2) since 1980s, severe shortage in the supply of affordable rental housing 3) more poor people are competing for less low income housing4) cuts to income support and social programs, and less job growth in non-service industries Causes of Urban Poverty INDIVIDUALperspective: - focuses on the individual's social, behavioural, emotional, and psychological deficits or intellectual limitations - causes: physical disability, mental illness, substance abuse, deviance blaming the victim - solution: emergency shelters and soup kitchens (provides only temporary solution…) STRUCTURALperspective - focus on how changes in the economic and political structure affect poverty - causes of poverty: downsizing economics unemployment minimum wage etc etc blame the system/structure - solution: advocate for the changes to the system (increasing minimum wage) - industrial restructuring of canada has reduced the number of manufacturing jobs while service jobs are low-paying and part time (16.89 + 25.34) - (36.73 * 1.15) = -0.0095 TEST #2 = Chapter 7, 11, 10, 12, 9 Lecture 6 Chapter 7 - Immigration and Race in the City How is immigration transforming Canada's Ci
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