Textbook Notes (363,460)
Canada (158,372)
Sociology (1,480)
SOC101Y1 (470)

SOC101 NOTES- Deviance and Crime

4 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto St. George
Christian O.Caron

SOC101 NOTES- Deviance & Crime Normalcy: studying crime and deviance Deviance: any behaviour, belief or condition that violates norms; it is something that is conferred by the group’s response (relative), continually changing, and varies in seriousness.  Understanding deviance: study the context under which something is deemed deviant.  Durkheim: deviance is present in all societies though they vary; deviance are acts that offend collective sentiments. His “perfect and upright” analogy explains that just as those people judge their own smallest failings with severity, so too do those who belong to groups considered exemplary; “it is impossible for everyone to be alike because each of us cannot stand in the same spot” Criminal Code: defines crime as “intentional violation of criminal law without defense and excuse. Has 4 components—politicality, specificity, uniformity, and penal sanctions.  To be found guilty: actus reus (act that has been committed) and mens rea (the intent) must always be together to consider a crime.  Types of crime: “mala in se” (crimes that are themselves evil) and “mala prohibita”(crimes because they are illegal) Norms: varies according to whether people know they exist, accept them, enforce them uniformly, think them important, back them up with law, and adhere to them in public/private lives. Social constructionism: apparently natural or innate features of life are often sustained by social processes that vary historically and culturally; power is crucial element in the social construction of deviance and crime. Social control: systematic practices developed by social groups to encourage conformity and discourage deviance; happens through socialization (people internalize norms & values), use of negative sanctions and the legal system. Sociologists focus on ways in which specific groups, behaviours, conditions or artifacts become defined as problems. They study what type of behaviours are defined as deviant, who does this defining, how and why people became deviants and how society deals with deviants. Claim makers: those who articulate/promote claims and who tend to gain in some way if the targeted audience accepts their claims are true (Example: government officials, scientists, advertisers).  Success of claim-making campaign depends on: claim makers’ access to media, available resources, position in society, and skill at fundraising, promotion and organization. Sociological Perspectives on Crime Deviance Functionalist: in a smoothly functioning society, deviance will be limited because most people will share common culture goals and agree upon the appropriate means for reaching them. However, societies that lack sufficient avenues to reach these goals may lack agreement about how people may achieve their aspirations.  Strain theory (Merton): people feel strain when they are exposed to cultural goals that they are unable to obtain because they do not have access to culturally approved means of achieving these goals.  Illegimate opportunity structures/opportunity theory (Cloward & Ohlin): for deviance to occur, people must have access to circumstances that provide an opportunity for people to acquire through illegitimate activities what they cannot achieve through legitimate channels. Criminal, conflict and retreatist emerge based on type of illegitimate opportunities available in a specific area.  Social bond theory/control theory (Hirschi): the likelihood of deviant behaviour increases when a person’s ties to society are weakened/broken; social bonding consists of attachment, commitment, involvement and belief. Symbolic interactionist: deviance is learned in same way as conformity—through interaction with others.  Differential association theory (Sutherland): individuals have a greater tendency to deviate from societal norms when they frequently associate with persons who favour deviance over conformity.  Labelling theory (Chambliss): those labelled as deviant may lead to subsequent deviance. Labelling is directly related to power and status of those persons who do the labelling and those who are being labelled; deviance is defined by social audience. Limert: primary deviance is initial act of rule breaking and secondary deviance is when a person who has been labelled deviant accepts that new identity and continues the deviant behaviour.  Moral entrepreneurs (Becker): people/groups who take an active role in trying to have particular behaviours defined as deviant.  Moral crusades: public and media awareness campaigns that help generate public and political support for moral entrepreneurs’ causes. Conflict: people in positions of power maintain their advantage by using law to protect their own interests. Lifestyles considered deviant by political and economic elites are often defined as illegal.  Marx: criminal justice system protects the power and privilege of the capitalist class.  Quinney: people with economic and political power define criminal any behaviour that threatens their own interests.  Reiman: the way laws are written and enforced benefits the capitalist class by ensuring that individuals at the bottom do not take property or threaten the safety of those at the top. Feminist (Comack): women’s deviance
More Less

Related notes for SOC101Y1

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.