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Canada (162,369)
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SOC101Y1 (470)
Chapter 15

New Society: Chapter 15

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Department
Sociology
Course
SOC101Y1
Professor
Robert Brym
Semester
Fall

Description
NSch15 Urbanlifesaidtobedifferentfromruralsmalltownlifemeanermorestressfulmorealienating Urbanitesobsessedwithefficiencymakingmoneyandnotimetorelatetoothersinamoreholisticandhumaneway Environmentalopportunitytheorypeopleactivelychoosewheretheywanttolivedependingontheextenttowhichaparticularplacemeshesorconstrainstheirpreferredlifestyle Peoplealwaysstrivetomatchtheirchoicewiththeirneeds Urbanlifecanbeviewedthroughdemography Preindustrialcitygrowthconstrainedbyhighbirthanddeathrate Deathratebegintofallduetoadvancesinhygienenutritionmedicineetcindustrialcitythrivedrd 3approachurbanexperienceisconstrainednotjustbynatureofphysicalenvironmentdemographicforcesbutbychangingconfigurationofinternationalnationalandlocalarrangementso Globalizedeconomychangedphysicalandsocialclasspatternso Resultinincreaseindifferencebetweenrichandpoor Countrysideserves2newpurposesvacationplaygroundandtoxicdumpinggroundth 3typesofcitiesindustrialcity19centuryto192030scorporatecityafterWW2dominatein50sand60spostmoderncity1970stopresentEarlyCities Citiesrelativelylargedensepermanentsettlementswheremajoritydontproduceownfood Cityasdistinctformexisted600030004000BCEfirstappearinMesopotamiasouthernIraqandEgypt Ancientcitiesestablishedascentresofreligiousworship LatercitiesgrewBabylonAlexandriaRome 3characteristicofthesepreindustrialcitieso Existenceoffoodsurplusinfertilevalleyspermitspecializationoflabouro Literacyamongscribespriestsandelitemembersofsocietyallowrecordsoffinancialthingso Technologicalinnovationsmetallurgyirrigationwindwaterpowerforsailingandgrainmillingth 11centuryoncitystatesalongMediterraneanreestablishedtradetoAsiaandMiddleEastthroughtheCrusades MerchanttownsofNorthSeaandBalticdevelopedtradeinwoolandcloth Classofprofessionalmerchantsestablishedownmunicipallawsandinstitutionsdistinctfromsurroundingfeudalsociety Marketforhousingandothergoodsandservices Atheightancientmedievalcitiesincapableofsupportingpopulationsover510ofsocietybecausecouldntgenerateenoughagriculturalsurplustofeedurbanpopulace PlagueBlackdeathspreadbyfleaskilledmanyinEurope By18003ofpeopleinworldlivedinurbanplacesth Physicallayoutofcommunitiesdidntchangemuchfromantiquityto18centuryo StillhadprotectivewallsorganizedaroundcentralmarketsquareplacesofworshipPopulationIssuesandUrbanGrowth UrbangrowthproductoftechnologicalprogresssocialinventionandpatternsofpopulationgrowthThedemographictransition Mostofhumanhistorybirthanddeathrateswerehighthusoverallsizeofpopulationremainsuniform Absenceofbirthcontrolwomeninpreindustrialsocietyhadmanykidso Necessarybecausechildmortalityratehighonlyhalfofkidsbornsurvivedtoadulthoodo Offspringwereeconomicvalueesptopoorpeoplechildrencanhelpwithfarmworksenttobeservants
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