Textbook Notes (368,566)
Canada (161,966)
Sociology (1,513)
SOC101Y1 (470)
Chapter 20

New Society: Chapter 20

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Department
Sociology
Course
SOC101Y1
Professor
Robert Brym
Semester
Fall

Description
NSch20 Scienceneedssubjectivitybutnottoomuch Personalvaluesexpectationscoreofsubjectivity Valuesandexpectationsfilterreality Theextenttowhichvaluesandexpectationsinfluencewhatweseeisdebatable Ifperceptionsofrealityareaffectedbyvalueshowdoweknowwhatweseeistrue Observerbiasmakingunconsciousmistakesinclassifyingselectingobservationsadangertogoodmethodologicalprocedure GoodresearchmethodsdesignedtominimizeimpactofbiasesMinimizingBiasinSocialScience Scientificideasonlyacceptedafterscrutinybyscientificcommunity Scientificpracticeencouragesskepticalreasoning Sciencewouldbeweakerwithoutvaluesandexpectations Expectationsandvaluesintensioninscientificenterpriseneedthemforcreativityandpassion Objectivityobservationsfreeofdistortingeffectsofbalesandexpectations Subjectivityessentialtochangeandinnovation HallmarkofscienceiscreativityScientificversusNonscientificThinking Before1700sknowledgeofworldwascustomorcommonsensereligiousknowledgeveryimportant DavidHumehelpedscientificwayofknowingo CreatedproblemofinductionobservationisnotenoughtoinferthenextobservationwillbethesamearguingagainstFrancisBaconwhosaidobservationwasbedrockofscienceo Collectionoffactsuselessunlessunderstandhowtointerpretthem SirKarlPoppero Observationsrefutingwellconceivedideaalwaysmoreimportantthanevidencesupportingatheoryo Sciencestartswithaquestionwellconceivedconjecture Distinguishingscientificthinkingfromotherwaysofthinkingo Publicscrutinyo Skepticalreasoningo TestabilityNaturalvsSocialScience Bacteriadontblush Humansareconsciousandcreativeandareknowledgeableactors Bacteriacantthinkactreasoncannoncontrolsurroundingsorreactions SociologistsstudymeaningfulactionactivitiesmeaningfultopeopleinvolvedMethodsofSocialResearchExplanation Adequateexplanationshowscausationnotjustcorrelation Correlationdoesnotprovecausation Cigarettesmokingandlungcancercigarettecompaniespresumeditwasspurioussomethingotherthansmokingcausedthelungcancer MultiplecausesinvolvedinscientificexplanationsUnderstanding Explanationsaresterileunlessalsoaddressmeaningfulnessofhumanactivity Musttaketheroleoftheothertofullyunderstand Payattentiontothedefinitionofthesituation Goffmanworkedininsaneasyluminterestedinhowpatternsofsocialactivityinasylumorganized Explanationsofhighschooldropoutratesignoreattitudesandvaluesofdropoutso Importanttoseetheresistanceofyouthtoauthority
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