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SOC101Y1 (470)

Commit Sociology - Groups and Organizations.docx

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Christian O.Caron

- Aggregate = a collection of people who happen to be in the same place at the same time but have little else in common (160) - Category = a number of people who may have never met one another but who share a similar characteristic (160) - Social groups interact frequently and share a sense of belonging and interdependence (160) - Ingroup = a group to which a person belongs and with which the person identifies (162) - Outgroup = a group a person doesn’t belong to and may feel hostility toward (162) - Reference group = a group that strongly influences a person’s behavior and social attitudes, regardless of whether that individual is actually a member (162) - Network = a web of social relationships that link one person with others and through them with more people (162) - Small world phenomenon – Milgram and six degrees of separation (163) - Functionalists say groups meet people's task oriented and emotional needs (164) - Conflict theorists say groups involve power relations where some people's needs are served and others' aren't (164) - Symbolic interactionists focus on how the size of the group influences the interactions that take place among members (164) - Postmodernists say groups are characterized by superficial relations and emotional fragmentation (164) - Small group = small enough for all members to be acquainted with one another and interact simultaneously (165) - Criticism of the Milgram experiment - subjects may have known study was fake (169) - Groupthink = the process by which members of a group arrive at a decision that many individual members privately believe is unwise (169) - Bureaucracy = an organizational model characterized by a hierarchy of authority, a clear division of labour, explicit rules and procedures, and impersonality in personnel matters (171) - Max Weber studied the trend toward bureaucracy after the industrial revolution because bureaucracy was seen as more efficient because of coordination and control (172) - Weber said all bureaucracies have a specialized division of labour, a hierarchy of authority, rules and regulations, qualification based employment, and impersonality (173) - Informal structure = aspects of people's day to day activit
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