SOC101 NOTES- Global Inequality
Two main factors motivated development after WW2: 1) competition between US and
Soviets to gain more power and control over less developed countries 2) US was interested in
new markets outside their traditional spheres of business operation. Development have served
to support capitalism.
Why we should care about development: 1) morality and social justice 2) self-interest and need
Rostow: argued that societal development follows several necessary stages of development.
• Beginning: society might be traditional, undifferentiated, and undeveloped.
• Possible stage of “take-off”: when it comes to contact with developed society where
science and technology spreads
• Take off: when an increase in market transactions, manufacturing and trade takes place.
McClelland: introduced the modernization theory that emphasizes the importance of values
and norms as drivers of development, the importance of entrepreneurship and the desire for
feelings of accomplishment and personal satisfaction. Global inequality results from lack of
capital, Western business techniques, stable governments and a Western mentality
emphasizing savings, investment, innovation, education, high achievement and self-control in
Frank: supports the dependency theory that the relationship between metropolitan powers and
satellite regions blocked progress in the global south and produced underdevelopment due to
their conquests, slave trades, exploitation of the resources with unfavourable terms of trade
since Industrial Revolution.
Neo-colonialism established by creating a system of dependency involving three main
elements: substantial foreign investment, support for authoritarian governments and mounting
Wallerstein: Core is major sources of capital and technology (USA, Japan, Germany),
Periphery is major sources of raw materials and cheap labour (most former colonies), and Semi-
periphery is former colonies that are making considerable headway in their attempts to become
prosperous (South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore; Israel; more recently, China, India, Brazil).
• How semi-peripheral countries differ from peripheral countries: type of colonialism,
geopolitical position, state policy, and social structure.
Brenner: challenged geographical version of dependency theory and revived Marxist
approach that focused on exploitation occurring at the level of class relationships and argued
that the struggle among classes to achieve dominance is the prime mover of social change.
More on classes:
• Global south is not homogenous so different class alliances came to control the states
of the global south. • Estate agriculture was more of an impediment to development than were agrarian
structures because estate agriculture restricted the purchasing power of rural workers
(they were compensated with land than money), estate owners had little incentive to
employ advanced technology over cheap labour, and they exercised enormous
political power that influenced governments to maintain free trade policies that made it
difficult for local industry to develop.
Development in Canada: Canada was s