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SOC101 NOTES- Global Inequality.docx

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Christian O.Caron

SOC101 NOTES- Global Inequality Two main factors motivated development after WW2: 1) competition between US and Soviets to gain more power and control over less developed countries 2) US was interested in new markets outside their traditional spheres of business operation. Development have served to support capitalism. Why we should care about development: 1) morality and social justice 2) self-interest and need for security Rostow: argued that societal development follows several necessary stages of development. • Beginning: society might be traditional, undifferentiated, and undeveloped. • Possible stage of “take-off”: when it comes to contact with developed society where science and technology spreads • Take off: when an increase in market transactions, manufacturing and trade takes place. McClelland: introduced the modernization theory that emphasizes the importance of values and norms as drivers of development, the importance of entrepreneurship and the desire for feelings of accomplishment and personal satisfaction. Global inequality results from lack of capital, Western business techniques, stable governments and a Western mentality emphasizing savings, investment, innovation, education, high achievement and self-control in having children. Frank: supports the dependency theory that the relationship between metropolitan powers and satellite regions blocked progress in the global south and produced underdevelopment due to their conquests, slave trades, exploitation of the resources with unfavourable terms of trade since Industrial Revolution. Neo-colonialism established by creating a system of dependency involving three main elements: substantial foreign investment, support for authoritarian governments and mounting debt. Wallerstein: Core is major sources of capital and technology (USA, Japan, Germany), Periphery is major sources of raw materials and cheap labour (most former colonies), and Semi- periphery is former colonies that are making considerable headway in their attempts to become prosperous (South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore; Israel; more recently, China, India, Brazil). • How semi-peripheral countries differ from peripheral countries: type of colonialism, geopolitical position, state policy, and social structure. Brenner: challenged geographical version of dependency theory and revived Marxist approach that focused on exploitation occurring at the level of class relationships and argued that the struggle among classes to achieve dominance is the prime mover of social change. More on classes: • Global south is not homogenous so different class alliances came to control the states of the global south. • Estate agriculture was more of an impediment to development than were agrarian structures because estate agriculture restricted the purchasing power of rural workers (they were compensated with land than money), estate owners had little incentive to employ advanced technology over cheap labour, and they exercised enormous political power that influenced governments to maintain free trade policies that made it difficult for local industry to develop. Development in Canada: Canada was s
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