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Chapter 2

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University of Toronto St. George
Christian O.Caron

- Sociological Knowledge & Science - An Idea Whose Time Has Come by Earl Babbie − This is the time of unprecedented dangers (never − Sociological insights are needed today more than known before) and real achievements. ever − It needs to be learned why people relate to one − unprecedented dangers today: “nuclear winter”(the another in peace or hostiles, it fits in the role of result of first nuclear war), overpopulation, sociology because it studies interaction and pollution, starvation, crime, inflation, prejudice etc. relations among humans, including how humans − In order to make peace in the world, military live together and how rules come into existence. technology advances will not help, people have to − Babbie claims, Sociology is an idea whose time has look into studies of why people relate to one come. another either peacefully or hostilely – sociology. The domain of sociology just as well) − Sociology involves the study of human beings − eg. Cars driven on the right in America, or left including study of interactions and relations in England create no change in the society among human beings − new rules seem better than other possibilities, and − Psychology is the study of what goes on inside represent an internal and universal truth individuals, whenever Sociology studies what goes − reification (pretence that things are real when they on between them are not, rules of society are reified), − addresses simple face to face interactions − eg. Driving on the right is right forAmericans, and (conversations, dating behaviour etc) British people don't know it (but both are same) − study of formal organizations, the functions of − Rules take the strongest hold when they are whole societies, and even relations among societies internalized (taken inside ourselves and made our − study of human beings living together (in good and own) bad times) − sociology is the study of how we break the rules − competing and conflicting are fundamental aspects (eg. Bad grammar, speeding etc) − view sociology as rules of living together − things people want create endless possibilities for − Rules of society are to extensive and complex and conflict and struggle no one can keep them all (in rush hour on a 25km/h street, with honks and fists aimed at you, you − human beings are not made for cooperation − we create rules to establish order, sociology is the will exceed the limit) study of how rules come into existence − some rules are ought to be broken (eg. Law that − study of how rules are organized and perpetuated stated “black people can only sit in the back of the buses in US”, turned people who finally broke it − the persistence of our rules is largely a function of into heroes one generation teaching another − socialization (the process of learning the rules) − Sociology: an examination of the rules that govern happens all the time by the use of positive and our living together: what they are, how they arise, and how they change; special approach to the rules negative sanctions (rewards and punishments) of social life. − rules can be arbitrary (different rules would work Ascience of society − critical thinking, is a characteristic of sociology − particular recursive quality in human life, makes anything we know tentative (what we learned will change, and what we knew can become inaccurate) Chapter 1: Human Inquiry and Science Introduction − in contrast of knowing things through agreement and belief (eg. world is round), we can know things through direct experience – observation (eg. Climbing the Rockies, no one needs to tell that it's called, you found it out it by yourself) − when our experience conflict with what everyone knows, though, there is a good chance we'll surrender our experience in favour of the agreement Looking for Reality − Science offers an approach to both agreement reality (what we “know” as part and parcel of the culture we share with those around us) and experiential reality (what we “know” from personal experience and discovery) − scientific assertion (confident and forceful statements) must have a logical / empirical basis, must (1) make sense and (2) correspond to the facts − science offers a special approach to the discovery of reality through personal experience − Epistemology is the science of knowing; methodology (a subfield of epistemology) is the science of finding out Ordinary Human Inquiry − humans predict future using causal and probabilistic reasoning (eg. Getting education will help make more money) − anything we learn can change things, so now knowledge can be counted on to remain true; questions have to be asked Tradition − important source of agreeing-upon knowledge − offers some clear advantages to human inquiry − if what everyone knows is accepted, we do not need to search from the beginning for regularities and understanding − tradition may hinder human inquiry, if something everyone knows is not know by you − provides us with a starting point but can lead the wrong way Authority − new knowledge appears appears every day − it can both assist and hinder human inquiry (eg. Biologists are authorites because they are expected to have an education, and their conclusion is likely to be believed, but they make mistakes too, that can hinder) − inquiry is also hindered when we depend on authorities (eg. Politician who has no knowledge in medical field, will say marijuana “will fry your brain” − provides us with a starting point but can lead the wrong way Errors in Inquiry and Some Solutions − Science seeks to protect against mistakes we make in day-to-day inquiry Inaccurate Observations: observations and by replication (repetition of a − scientific observation is a conscious activity, research study in order to either confirm the findings of a previous study or bring them into question) whenever human inquiry is not − making observation more deliberate Selective Observation: (intentional) helps reduce the error − danger of overgeneralization, we think that we have − (eg. Not remembering what the teacher was developed general understanding of why something exists, we focus on future events that fit the pattern, wearing on the first day of class is caused b/c and ignore those that don't most of our daily observations are casual and semiconscious; if the goal on the first day of − eg. racial and ethnic prejudice class was to record what he is wearing, you'd be − Social scientists look for “deviant cases” (those who accurate when trying to remember) do not fit the general pattern) Overgeneralization: Illogical reasoning: − people assume that few similar events are evidence − there are other ways in which we often deal with of a general pattern, we overgeneralize on the basis observations that contradict our understanding of of limited observation the way things are in daily life − when the pressure to arrive at the general − ex.1: “the exceptions proves the rule” , makes no understanding is high, there is tendency to sense because exception can draw attention but overgeneralize cannot prove the rule it contradicts, but that saying − overgeneralization can misdirect or impede (prevent) is often used to brush away contradiction) inquiry (eg. A reporter has 2 hours to hand in the − Gambler's fallacy: illustration of illogic in day-to- article, he goes to a place and starts interviewing day reasoning (eg. Bad luck at poker today, people; first 3 give the same reasons, so he decides foreshadows a better luck tomorrow – false) that 3000 others who are there think the same thing. − scientists try to avoid illogical reasoning by using As a result, the overgeneralization causes people to systems of logic consciously and explicitly (clearly protest and rebel against your story, others who will and in in detail) read the article, will be misleaded) − logical reasoning is a conscious activity for − scientists seek to avoid overgeneralization by scientists and that other scientists are always around committing themselves to a sufficient number of to keep them honest What's Really Real? − “naive realism” - description of the way most us operate daily lives (we live thinking what's real is obvious and that's how we make it through the day) − nature of reality is more complex than what we assume it is − Three views of “reality” are the premodern, modern, and postmodern views. The Premodern View or prevent) of human subjectivity − guided most of human history The Post-modern View − suggests that there is no “objective” reality to be − our ancestors thought they saw things as they really were (no one said “our tribe makes an assumptions observed in the first place. There are only our several there are evil spirits on the tree”, instead “stay away! subjective views: There are evil spirits in that tree”) − personal viewpoint you bring to the observational The Modern View task will again colour your perception of what is − accept diversity happening − eg. “there are spirits in the tree but they are neither represents a critical dilemma for scientists - their good or evil, people have different ideas about task is to observe and understand the “reality” them” − but they are human, so they will add personal − but in the modern view a dandelion is a dandelion , orientations that will colour what they observe and how they explain it different concepts are subjective points of views imposed, but neither is a quality of the plant itself− there is no way to understand and see the world as it − acknowledges the inevitability (impossible to avoid REALLY is The Foundations of Social Science − Science is sometimes categorized as logico - emperical − logical / empirical basis, must (1) make sense and (2) correspond to what we observe − both elements are essential and relate to 3 major aspects of social scientific enterprise: theory(systematic explanation for the observations that relate to a particular aspect of life: for ex. juvenile delinquency (guilty of a crime) or perhaps social stratification or political revolution), data collection, and data analysis − scientific theory deals with logical aspect of science − data collection deals with observational aspect − data analysis looks for patterns in observations and, where appropriate compares what is logically expected with what is actually observed Theory, Not Philosophy or Belief − biggest problem is to getting people to agree on − Social theory attempts to discuss and explain what criteria of success and failure is, not what should be. Theory should not be − such criteria is essential if social research is to tell us confused with philosophy or belief about matters of value − scientific theory, and science cannot settle debates − social science can help us know what is and why; about values. can be used to determine what ought to be only when − eg. Science cannot determine whether people agree on the criteria for deciding what capitalism is better or worse than socialism, but outcomes are better than others – an agreement that they can determine how these systems perform seldom occurs in terms of some set of agreed-upon criteria Social Regularities − to scientifically determine whether capitalism or − social research aims to find patterns of regularity in socialism most supports human dignity and freedom, social life we would first need to agree on some measurable − social affairs do exhibit a high degree of regularity definitions of dignity and freedom. Our conclusions that can be revealed by research and explained by would then be limited to the meanings specified in theory our definitions and no general meanings beyond that − vast number of formal norms in society create a − since people rarely agree on the precise criteria for considerable degree of regularity determining issues of value, science is rarely useful − eg. most Canadians obey traffic laws and drive in settling such debates. Questions like that are a matter of opinion and belief, and then scientific on the right side, rather then left − from formal norms, other social norms can be inquiry is viewed as a thread to what is “already observed (unskilled workers earn less than Prof's know” etc) − researchers became increasingly involved in − Social regularities are probabilistic patterns, and studying programs that reflect ideological points of view (eg. Needle exchange, affirmative action) they are no less real just because some cases don't fit the general pattern (exceptions) − analogy: a stopwatch cannot tell us if one − eg. blue eyed person with brown eyed sprinter is better than the other unless the speed person are most likely to create in a brown is put as the critical criterion in the beginning eyed baby but if the baby is born with blue − eg. male and female are attributes, sex and eyes it will not destroy the observed gender are variables composed of these two regularity, because they were most likely to attributes create brown-eyed baby, but there is a − the variable occupation is composed of percentage for exceptions − social scientists make a similar, probabilistic attributes (such as farmer, driver etc.) − social class is a variable composed of prediction – eg. Women overall are likely to a set of attributes (such as upper, lower earn less than men class) − once a pattern is observed, social scientists can− attributes are “categories” that make up a question why it exists Aggregates, Not Individuals variable − relationship between attributes and variables is a − social scientists study motivations that affect key to description and explanation individuals − eg. a university class in terms of variable − an individual is a seldom subject of social sceince gender can be described by reporting observed − instead, social scientists create theories about the frequencies of the attributes male and female: aggregate (different) behaviour of many individuals “The class is 60% men and 40% women”. − social scientific theories usually deal with − eg. Unemployment rate can be thought of as a aggregated, not individual, behaviour description of the variable employment status − their purpose: to explain why aggregate of a labour force in terms of attributes patterns of behaviour are so regular even employed and unemployed, the family income when the individuals participating in them for a city report is a summary of attributes may change over time composing that variable − social scientists don't even seek to explain people − theories describe the relationships we might − they try to understand the systems in which logically expect among variables people operate, explaining why people do what − the expectation involves the idea of causation (the they do act or process of making an effect) − the elements in such systems are not people but − which is a person's attributes on one variable are variables expected to cause, predispose, or encourage a Avariable language particular attribute on another variable − someone tells me “Women out to get back into the − eg. a person that is educated or uneducated kitchen where they belong”, I would try and causes a lesser or greater likelihood of that understand the behaviour of a particular individual person seeming prejudiced saying that but − education and prejudice would be regarded as − social research seeks insights into classes or types independent variable (a variable with values that of individuals are not problematical in an analysis but are taken as − researchers would want to find about the kind simply given. An independent variable is presumed of people who share that view, and if they have to cause or determine a dependent variable) and anything in common that can explain it dependent variable (a variable assumed to depend − when researchers focus attention on one particular on or be caused by another, independent variable. If you find that income is partly a function of amount case (eg. Juvenile gang), they aim to gain insights of formal education, income is being treated as a that would help people understand other cases (eg. Other Juvenile gangs) dependent variable) − attempt to understand one individual leads into − eg. prejudice depends on something else, understanding people or types of people in general therefore it is dependant variable. It depends on independent variable education, education is − social researchers are interested in understanding “independent” because it is independent of the system of variables that causes a particular attitude to be strong in one instance and weak in prejudice (people's level of education is not another, and therefore caused by whether or not they are prejudiced − social research involves the study of variables and − Independent variable = cause; Dependent variable = effect their relationships − social scientific theory has to do with the two − variables (logical groupings of attributes. The variable gender is made up of the attributes variables not with people male and female) have values or attributes − people are the carriers of those two variables, (characteristics of people or things) and the relationship between variables can only be seen when we observe people − anything that is said to describe anybody involves an attribute Some dialectics of Social Research − “dialectics” of social research means that there is a fruitful tension between the complementary concepts described below − represent important variation in social research Idiographic and Nomothetic Explanation of relationships today (nomothetic), and probe − all of us go through life explaining things the narrowly particular tomorrow (idiographic) − everyday we engage in two distinct forms of causal Inductive and Deductive Theory reasoning: − Induction (the logical model in which general principles are developed from specific observations) − idiographic explanation (an approach to explanation in which we seek to exhaust the FROM GENERALTO SPECIFIC idiosyncratic – unique, distinct, causes of a − inductive reasoning moves from the particular particular condition or event. ) to the general, from a set of specific − explanation of a single situation observations to the discovery of a pattern that represents some degree of order among all the − eg. imagine trying to list all the reasons given events why you chose to attend your particular university. Given all those reasons, it's − my discovery doesn't tell me why pattern exist, difficult to imagine your making any other just that it does choice) − eg. Jews and Catholics are more likely to vote Liberal than Protestants, it can be − eg. explanation might be more convincing for the parole officer concluded that religious minorities in − when completed, causes of what happened Canada are more affiliated with the Liberal in the particular instance are fully Party and explained why. understood − induction begins with whether, and moves to why − nomothetic explanation (an approach to explanation in which we seek to identify a few causal − Deduction (the logical model in which specific factors that influence a class of conditions or events) expectations of hypotheses are developed on the − seeks to explain a class of situations or events basis of general principles) FROM SPECIFIC TO rather than a single one GENERAL − it moves from (1) a pattern that might be logically − seeks to explain “economically”, using only one or just few explanatory factors or theoretically expected to (2) observations that test − it settles for partial, rather than full whether the expected pattern actually occurs explanation − deduction begins with why, and moves to whether − eg. Starting from the general principle that all − eg. imagine the two or three key factors deans are meanies, you might anticipate that that determine which universities students choose, such as proximity, reputation and this one won't let you change courses. This so forth anticipation would be the the result of deduction − eg. good guide for planning your study − induction and deduction often work together to provide ever more powerful and complete habits understandings − both idiographic and nomothetic reasoning are powerful tools for social research − eg. ideographically and deductively, you might − idiographic reasoning: researcher who seeks a prepare for a particular date by taking everything you know about the person you're great understand of the inner workings of particular dating in account, trying to anticipate logically juvenile gang engages in idiographic research: she how you can prepare – which clothes, trie to understand the gang as fully as possible behaviour, hairstyle, are likely to make the date − nomothetic reasoning: researchers who seek to uncover the chief factors leading to juvenile successful. delinquency are pursuing a nomothetic inquiry. They − Or, ideographically and inductively, you might try to figure out what it was exactly that caused might discover that children from broken homes are your date to call 911. more likely to be delinquent than those from intact − a nomothetic, deductive approach arises when families − combination of approaches can also prove very you coach others on your “rules of dating”, useful in many instances when you wisely explain why their dates will be impressed to hear them expound on the dangers − social scientists can access two distinct kinds of of satanic messages concealed in rock and roll explanation lyrics. When you later review your life and − social scientists can search for broad patterns wonder why you didn't date more musicians, through quantification you might engage in nomothetic induction − a complete understanding of topic requires both Quantitative and Qualitative Data techniques − every observation is qualitative Pure and Applied Research − quantification makes observations more explicit, − social scientists have shown two distinct easier to aggregate, compare and summarize data motivations: − opens up the possibility of statistical analyses (from− understanding: they are fascinated by the nature of simple to complex formulas) human social life and are driven to explain it. Pure − quantitative data offers the advantages that numbers research in all scientific fields finds justification in “knowledge for knowledge's sake have over words to measure quality but it also loses richness of meaning − application: inspired by their subject manner, social − qualitative data can have the disadvantages of scientists are committed to having what they learn to purely verbal descriptions (eg. Using expression make a difference – to seeing their knowledge of “older than his years”, the expression probably society put into action. Sometimes they focus on doesn't mean the same thing for everyone, and it making things better. can't be known what was meant by it) − Applied social scientists put their research into − both methods are useful and legitimate in social practice in many immediate and direct ways. Eg. research Experiments and surveys for marketing products − qualitative approach seems more aligned with Both understanding and application are valid and vital idiographic explanations elements in social research as a whole − nomothetic explanations are more easily achieved The Ethics of Social Research No Harm to Subjects − foremost ethical rule of social research − everyone would agree with this rule, however sometimes it's hard to follow − eg. while interviewing people about their religious views, people started doubting their religious views or study of women's role caused women to become unsatisfied with their marriages − before conductions a research, ask “could this harm the people you intend to study”, since everything can harm, researchers must weigh all the possible outcomes − researchers often keep the information confidentially − information is collected anonymously − researchers are committed to avoiding deception (making people believe what is not true) except when it's inescapable − if it is necessarily to deceive people as to our research purposes, we must ask whether potential value of the research justifies the act of deception Voluntary Participation − Ethics is a key consideration in the design of social research. Two fundamental ethical guidelines are that participation in social research must be voluntary and that no harm should come to research subjects - Culture - − sociology provides us with a framework for examining and developing a greater awareness of culture and cultural diversity, in addition to how cultures change over time − Culture is the knowledge, language, values, customs, and material objects that are passed from person to person and from one generation to the next in a human group or society − Society is a large social grouping that occupies the same geographic territory and is subject to the same political authority and dominant cultural expectations − society is made up of people, culture is made up of ideas, behaviour and material possessions − society and culture are interdependent Culture and Society in a Changing World − sociological imagination (seeing connections between personal troubles and social structure) can be developed from understanding on how culture affects our lives Culture and Society The Importance of Culture Material and Nonmaterial Culture − essential for our daily survival as individuals and − Material culture: a component of culture that communication with others consists of the physical or tangible creations - such − we are not born with information we need to survive, as clothing, shelter, and art – that members of a so we rely on culture society make, use, and share − sharing a common culture with others makes day-to- − items of material culture began as raw day interactions simple materials eg. trees, oil − fundamental for the survival of societies − through technology they are transformed into usable items − some system of making and enforcing rules always exists, laws establish and protect our rights − Technology: the knowledge, techniques, and tools − societies need rules about civility and tolerance that make it possible for people to transform towards others resources into usable forms, as well as the knowledge and skills required to use them after they − people are born without knowledge to express are developed kindness or hatred towards others − what we do is determined by nature (our − material culture is important cause it's our buffer biological and genetic makeup), rather than against the environment (eg. Shelter to protect from nurture (our social environment) – our the weather) − Nonmaterial culture: a component of culture that behaviour is instinctive (an unlearned, consists of the abstract or intangible human biologically determined behaviour pattern common to all members of a species that creations of society such as attitudes, beliefs, and predictable occurs whenever certain values – that influence people's behaviour environmental conditions exist) − eg. language, beliefs, values, rules − eg. spiders build spiderwebs because of their − central component beliefs (mental acceptance or conviction that certain things are true or instincts (protection + reproduction) − humans do not have instincts real) − instinctive behaviour can be attributed to − they can be based on tradition, faith, reflexes (unlearned, biologically determined experience etc. Culture Universals involuntary response to a physical stimulus, eg. − Culture universals: customs and practices that Sneezing) and to drives (unlearned, biologically determined impulses common to all members of occur across all societies a species that satisfy needs, eg. for food, sleep− anthropologist George Murdock complied a list of etc) more than 70 cultural universals − reflexes and drives do not determine how − eg. appearances (hairstyles), activities (joking, people behave in societies, the expression of sports) etc. these biological characteristics is channelled − general customs and practices can be present in all by culture (eg. appropriate way to sneeze societies but their specific forms vary from one (involuntary response) is to use a tissue) group to another (eg. A joke might be funny in this − Culture and social learning – not nature – society, and can be an insult in the other) account for virtually all of behaviour patternscultural universals: − culture is a “tool kit of symbols, stories, ritua−s ensure the smooth and continual operation of society and world views...”(Ann Swidler) − from one perspective (functionalist), they help to fulfill important functions of society (such as, universals are not the result of functional necessity, meeting basic human needs, teaching new members these practices may have been imposed by members the ways of the group, dealing with emotions of of one society on members of another others, self needs must be balanced with society's − eg. religious practices of natives are often needs) stamped out by new settlers who hold − from another perspective (conflict), cultural economical +political powers Components of Culture All cultures have four non-material components which contribute to harmony and conflict in a society 1. Symbol (anything that meaningfully represents system of symbols used to express emotions when something else) people are communicating on their computers) • help us communicate ideas through abstract • gestures are also symbols concepts with visible objects • where the closes was purchased can become a • different cultures = different symbol interpretation symbol of the social status • in our technology-oriented society, emoticons (new Ways that language and gender intertwined: 2. Language (a system of symbols that expresses ideas − english ignores women by using masculine form to and enables people to think and communicate with refer to human beings in general (eg. Chairman and one another) • helps us describe reality with both verbal and nonverbal language mankind – include both men and women) [men = all humans • allows people to distinguish themselves from or just males?] − use of pronouns he and she, show the gender of the outsiders and maintain group boundaries and solidarity person we expect to be in a particular occupation. • humans have a unique ability to manipulate symbols (eg. Nurses, schoolteachers are normally referred to to express abstract concepts and rules, and thus to as she, while doctors, engineers as he) create and transmit culture from one generation to − words have positive connotations when relating to the next male power, prestige, and leadership; when related Language and Social Reality to women, they carry negative overtones of − key issue in sociology is whether language creates weakness, inferiority, and immaturity or simply communicates reality − a language-based tendency to think about women in − anthropological linguists Edward Sapir and sexual terms reinforces the notion that women are Benjamin Whorf, suggested that language not only sexual objects. Women are often described as fox, expresses our thoughts and perceptions but also broad, bitch, babe, or doll, that ascribes childlike or influences our perception of reality. pet like characteristics to women. While dude, stud, − acc. to Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, language shapes its and hunk define men in terms of their sexual speaker's view of reality superiority − some occupations have changed their names (eg. − if people are able to think only through language, language must come before thought firefighter) − if language shapes reality we perceive and − more inclusive language is needed to develop a more experience, some aspects of the world are inclusive and equitable society Language, Race and Ethnicity viewed as important and some are just virtually neglected because people know the world only − language may create and reinforce our perceptions in terms of vocabulary and grammar of their about race and ethnicity by transmitting own language preconceived ideas about superiority of one category of people over another − eg. aboriginallanguages focus on describiimages conveyed in english by words in regard to race and relationships between things instead of usethnicity:ge to judge and evaluate; their languages do not have any personal pronouns based on ge–dso gender is − blackhearted (malevolent – a person who does evil neglected in those societies to others), Chinaman's chance of success (unlikely − while acknowledging that language has many subtle to succeed) – give the words black and chinaman meanings and that the words used by people reflect negative associations, in contrast, that's white of their central concerns, most sociologists contend you reinforces positive ass. with the colour white that language may influence our behaviour and − nigger, kike, gook, honkey, chick are popularized in interpretation of social reality, but it does not movies etc., such derogatory (disrespectful) terms determine it. are used in conjunction with physical threats against Language and Gender a person Language diversity in Canada − in 2006, only 18% of Aboriginals claim native − language chief vehicle for understanding and language as their first experiencing one's culture − Aboriginal is taught at schools, aboriginal − In 1969, Official Languages Act, Canada became media and recordings of history are available to bilingual save the culture from disappearance − Aboriginal languages reflect histories, cultures, and− Functionalist perspective: a shared language is identities linked to family, community, land, and essential to a common culture, language is traditional knowledge stabilizing force in society and an important means − Aboriginal people's cultures are oral cultures of cultural transmission. Children learn through it about their cultural heritage and develop a sense of (cultures that are transmitted through speech rather than in written word) personal identity in relation to their group − Language is not only a means of communication, − Conflict theorist: view language as a source of but also a link that connects people with their past power and social control; it perpetuates inequalities and grounds their social, emotional, and spiritual between people and between groups because words vitality are used to “keep people in their place”. − only 3 out of more than 50 Ab. languages are in a − Different languages are associated with inequalities. healthy state, while others disappeared Language, is a reflection of our feelings and our values 3. Values − ideal culture (the values and standards of behaviour − collective ideas about what is right or wrong, gothat people in a society profess to hold) or bad, and desirable or undesirable in particular − real culture (the values and standards of behaviour culture that people actually follow) − values do not dictate appropriate behaviours, but − eg. we may claim to be law abiding (ideal they provide us a criteria by which we evaluate culture value) but smoke weed (real culture people, objects and events behaviour) Value Contradictions − the degree of discrepancy (difference) between ideal − (values that conflict with one another or are and real culture is relevant to sociologists mutually exclusive [achieving one makes it difficult, investigating social change if not impossible, to achieve another) − large discrepancies provide a foothold for − all societies have them demonstrating hypocrisy (pretending to be what − eg. core values of morality and humanitarianism one is not or to feel what one does not feel) may conflict with values of individual achievement − they become the source of social problems and success (protecting environment = core value, but our Ideal versus Real Culture behaviour = polluting lakes, contributes to its − there is always a gap between both degradation) 4. Norms − eg. negative sanctions: life imprisonment − established rules of behaviour or standards of − formal sanctions: clearly defined and can only conduct be applied by people in official positions − values provide ideals but do not clearly state how we− Informal norms: unwritten standards of behaviour should behave understood by people who share a common identity − Prescriptive norms: state what behaviour is (making a negative gesture) appropriate or acceptable (eg. Norms based on − Informal sanctions: not clearly defined and can be custom – open a door for a person carrying heavy applied by any member of the group bags) Folkways − Proscriptive norms: state what behaviour is − norms are classified according to their relative inappropriate/unacceptable (eg. Reading newspaper social importance in class) − Folkways: informal norms or everyday customs that − Norms operate at all levels of society may be violated without serious consequences Formal and Informal Norms withing a particular culture (eg. using deodorant, − Formal norms: are written down and involve brushed teeth, appropriate clothes for specific specific punishments for violators (eg. Laws) occasion) − Sanctions: rewards for appropriate behaviour or − folkways are not often enforced, and when they penalties for inappropriate behaviour are, sanctions tend to be informal and relatively − eg. positive sanctions: honours, medals mild − folkways are culture-specific, they are learned − they provide people with guidelines for patterns of behaviour that can vary markedly from behaviour one society to another (eg. in Japan, a person has to knock before entering the stall, but in Canada people find it disconcerting ) Mores Laws − are strongly held norms with moral and ethical − are formal, standardized norms that have been connotations that may not be violated without enacted by legislatures and are enforced by formal serious consequences in a particular culture sanctions − based on cultural values and considered crucial for − civil law (deals with disputes among persons or well being of the group groups) − violators receive more severe punishments (eg. loss − eg. people who lose civil suits may encounter of employment) than folkways negative sanctions, such as having to pay − Taboos: are mores so strong that their violation is compensation to the other party or being considered extremely offensive and even ordered to stop certain conduct unmentionable − criminal law (deals with public safety and well- − violation of taboo is punishable by the group or being) supernatural force (eg. Sexual relations between − eg. when criminal law is violate, fines and first line relatives is a nearly universal taboo). prison time are the most likely negative − folkways and mores provide structure and security sanctions in society, All of the nonmaterial component of culture – symbols, language, values and norms – are reflected in the popular culture of contemporary society Technology, Cultural Change, and Diversity Cultural Change − eg. video games, airplanes, Charter of Rights − is a continuous process experienced by societies, and Freedoms caused by cultural change at both material and − Diffusion is the transmission of cultural items or nonmaterial levels social practices from one group or society to − when a change occurs in material culture, non another through such means as exploration, military material one has to adapt endeavours, the media, tourism and immigration − the rate of change is uneven − pinatas – was brought by Marco Polo from − sociologist William F. Ogburn referred to this China to Italy, travelled to Spain, then to disparity as cultural lag (a gap between the Mexico – today children in many countries technical development of a society (material culture) break the pinata Cultural Diversity (c.d) and its moral and legal institutions (nonmaterial culture) − refers to the wide range of cultural differences − this occurs when, material culture changes found between and within nations faster than nonmaterial, thus creating a lag − c.d between countries may be the result of natural between two cultural components circumstances (climate/geography) or social circumstances (level of technology/composition of − eg. with technology (material) available, it would be possible to create a database with population) everyone's records from birth to death, but − Homogeneous societies: they include people who from nonmaterial perspective, people might share a common culture and are typically from believe that it will be invasion of privacy similar social, religious, political and economic and others would abuse them backgrounds − social conflict may arise between nonmaterial − Heterogeneous societies: they include people who culture and the capabilities of material culture, are dissimilar in regard to social characteristics, often set in motion by discovery, invention and such as,nationality, race, class, ethnicity, occupation diffusion and education. − Discovery is the process of learning about Subcultures something previously unknown or unrecognized − complex societies are more likely to produce − eg. discovery of polio vaccine, eliminated a subcultures (groups of people who share a major childhood disease distinctive set of cultural beliefs and behaviours that − Invention is the process of reshaping existing differ in some significant way from those of the cultural items into a new form larger society) The Hutterites: − life centre: community not the individual − fought for many years to keep their distinct identity − everything is shared − largest family-type communal grouping in the Countercultures Western world − groups that strongly rejects dominant societal values − are considered a subculture, because their values, and norms and seeks alternative lifestyles norms and appearance significantly differ from the − youth is likely to join those groups, because they members of dominant culture don't feel like a part of existing culture (eg. Flower − they have strong faith in God, and reject worldly children of 1960's) concerns Culture Shock − core values: joy of work, primacy of the home, − is the disorientation that people feel when they faithfulness, thriftiness, tradition, and humility encounter cultures radically different from their − hold conservative views, believing that women are own; and believe they cannot depend on their own subordinate to men, birth control is unacceptable, taken-for-granted assumptions about life and wives should remain at home − eg. Napoleon Chagnon experienced culture shock, − children = economic asset, help with farming, and whenever he arrived at the sight of the Yanomamo, he saw naked men, drugs being blown, mucus other work dangling from the noses of the tribe people Ethnocentrism and Cultural Relativism − Ethnocentrism: the tendency to regard one's own − has a downside, it can be used to excuse culture and group as the standard – and thus customs and behaviour (eg. Cannibalism) that superior – whereas all other groups are seen as may violate basic human rights. inferior − Is a part of the sociological imagination − based on assumption that one's own way of life (personal struggles and social structure) is superior to all others − researchers must be aware of the customs and − eg. most schoolchildren are taught that their norms of the society they are studying and then school and country are the best, school anthem spell out their background assumptions so that and country's anthem are forms of positive others can spot possible biases in their studies. ethnocentrism − negative ethnocentrism (n.e) can also result High Culture and Popular Culture from constant emphasis on the superiority of − High culture: consists of classical music, opera, one's own group or nation. N.e is manifested ballet, live theatre etc, usually supported by elite (shown) in derogatory (humiliating) stereotypes audiences, composed primarily of members of the that ridicule recent immigrants whose customs, upper-middle and upper classes, who have the time, dress, eating habits, or religious beliefs are money and knowledge assumed to be necessary for markedly different from those of dominant its appreciation. group members. − Popular culture: consists of activities, products, and − Alternative to ethnocentrism, cultural services that are assumed to appeal primarily to relativism: the belief that the behaviours and members of the middle and working classes. customs of any culture must be viewed and − eg. rock concerts, movies, TV, internet etc analyzed b the culture's own standards. − structure and social class are intricately related. − eg. anthropologist Marvin Harris uses − Sociologist Pierre Bourdieu's (1984) cultural cultural relativism to expl
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