SOC101Y NOTES- Education
“Allophones”: people with neither English nor French background.
School: shapes work, politics, etc.; starting point for sorting children into adult jobs and social
classes; sometimes controversial because they endow young people with key capacities of
communication, coordination and economic productivity; accomplishes 2 main tasks:
homogenizing young people by socializing them into a shared culture and sorting them into
different levels of certification and social classes.
Sociologists examine three ways in which schools connect to society:
• Through selection (e.g., process by which the structure of schooling feeds into broader
patterns of social inequality)
• Through socialization (e.g., schools pass along values and knowledge)
• Through social organization (e.g., schools affect how we learn and help define different
types of occupations)
Educational achievement: learning of valuable skills and knowledge; in principle reflected in
Educational attainment: number of years of schooling completed or degrees earned.
Spread of mass schooling: development of printing press, Protestant Reformation, spread of
democracy and industrialism.
Education achievement and attainment are rising in Canada and it is both a cause and effect of
national wealth (education is not only a source of wealth, it is also a product of wealth).
Functionalist: educational attainment and social ranking are regulated by performance based
on individual merit; education is important for industrialization.
• Latent function: schools create separate youth culture that can conflict with parents’
values, role conflict, surveillance system for children, means of maintaining wage levels,
marriage market, and promote social change (“social dissent”).
• Assortative mating: when marriage partners are selected so that spouses are similar
on various criteria of social rank.
• Manifest function: industrialism causes convergence of societies and social institutions
developing according to a common pattern (must perform certain manifest functions to
make industrialism possible); inclu