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Chapter 2

SOC101 Textbook (New Society 6th ed) Notes Chapter 2

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University of Toronto St. George
Robert Brym

CHAPTER 2 CULTURE culture all the socially transmitted ideas practices and material objects that people create to deal with real life problems y Passed on from generation to generation y Shared by the means of human interaction communication and learning socially transmitted society involves people interacting socially and sharing culture usually in a defined geological areaOrigins of Culture humans lived in harsh environments but survived bc of sophisticated brains that provided cultural survival kit consisting of three main tools abstraction cooperation and production1 Abstraction the capacity to create ideas or ways of thinking y Eg symbols things that carry particular meanings are one important type of idea includes language mathematical notations signs etc y Eg we distinguish a chair from other objects by giving it a name chair y Beyond rudimentary level shown by a few chimpanzees abstraction is uniquely human capacity2 Cooperation capacity to create complex social life by establishing norms y Norms standards of behavior or generally accepted ways of doing things y variety of social arrangements and institutions adhere to norms healthcare systems political parties religious worship etc3 Production involves devising and using tools and techniques that improve our ability to take what we want from nature y These tools and techniques are known as material culture y Only humans ar
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