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SOC101Y1 (470)

Development Notes

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Robert Brym

Chapter 9 Development and Underdevelopment Development Development initially associated with industrialization and democratization of society based on equal rights and freedoms of its citizensAfter WWII development came to mean process that generated economic growth industrialization and modernization in regions and countries perceived to be poor traditional and undevelopedArose out of the following Competition between USled capitalist countries and Soviet Unionled communist countriesBusiness in developed West seeking new markets outside their traditional spheres of operationIt is claim by some analysts that development and study of development have served to supportie economic system based on competitive enterprises seeking to maximize world capitalismprofits using wage labory The Cold War broke out between the developed capitalist countries led by the United States and the communist countries led by the Soviet Uniony Among other things the Cold War involved intense competition between the two rival blocs to amass power by gaining influence and control over less developed countriesy Latin America Africa and Asia were of great interest to the Western powers for geopolitical and economic reasons y Other analysts deny that that genuine development can occur within the confines of capitalism they have promoted a noncapitalist road to developmentRelevance of Development and Global Inequalities Can consider development in terms of i morality and social justice and ii selfinterest and need for securityThere are huge differences in income not only across countries but within countries as wellChapter 9 Development and Underdevelopment Neighborhood economy of global capitalism is maintained by system of power relations backed up by disproportionate wealth and ultimately willingness to exercise violence when all else failsy Some consider development a matter of social justice that the worlds desperately poor be lifted out of a life of illiteracy disease and hopelessnessy They regard it as unacceptable that a Canadian student buys a coffee at Starbucks for three times the average daily wage of more than a billion people or spends more on a laptop computer than the per capita gross domestic product of the worlds 51 poorest countries below US1000 Milanovic 2009 United Nations 2009y Other people are more concerned with the practical implications of having so many people in the world with so little to sustain themEarly Theories of Development 1 Development in StagesHuman societies likened to social organisms that passed through stages of development and were susceptible to pathologies or diseasesRostows stages of development theory Argued that a society at first was traditional undifferentiated and underdevelopedThen entered stage of possible takeoff with exposure to developed society Ultimately moves along path to development as more efficiently scientific and technological diffusion occursy Social scientists who study development have proposed radically different theories to explain development and lack of development y Takeoff occurs when and if an increase in market transactions manufacturing and trade takes place2 Modernization TheoryEmphasizes importance of values and norms as drivers of developmentAssumptionMost of responsibility for economic backwardness lies with societies of the third world or global south themselves
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