SOC101Y1 Chapter Notes - Chapter 6: Feral Child, Sigmund Freud, Mass Media

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Published on 17 Oct 2015
School
UTSG
Department
Sociology
Course
SOC101Y1
Professor
Socialization & Social Interaction
What is Socialization?
- self: a sense of individual identity that allows us to understand who we are in relation to
others and to differentiate ourselves from them.
- socialization: A process of social interaction in which we learn the way of life in our
society and develop and identity.
- tools (e.g. symbols, norms, values) allow us to master nature and build orderly societies.
- have to be internalized through socialization
- socialization makes social interaction, social organization, and social order possible.
- individual differences are ~ product of socialization.
- distinctive subcultures
- primary socialization: the crucial learning process that occurs in childhood and
initiates our entry into society.
- secondary socialization: occurs after people have already undergone primary
socialization.
Nature and nurture:
- instincts
- nature and nurture are inseparable.
- the human brain provides the physiological apparatus required for interpreting
experiences, but unless children have the opportunity to learn, reason, and solve problems
in early life, the brain itself may not fully develop.
- evidence for how critical social interaction is to our development as human beings:
i). “feral” children- grow up alone in the wilderness/raised by wild animals
- Victor: efforts to civilize him were unsuccessful
ii). children raised in isolation
- Genie: withdrawn and unable to form deep attachments
iii). Institutionalized children
- grossly delayed in motor and mental development
- What does it mean to be human?
- People have a basic biological need for social interaction
The Self and Socialization
Sigmund Freud:
- only social interaction allows the self to emerge
- infants form a self-image when their demands are denied
- its needs differ from those of its parents
- independent existence
- gotta balance its needs the realities of life
Charles Horton Cooley:
- looking-glass self: gestures and reactions of others are a mirror or “looking glass” in
which we see ourselves.
- self-conceptions are socially organized around our evaluation of how we believe
ourselves to be judged by others.
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- significant others: those closest to children during the early stages of their lives (esp.
parents)
- primary group: the small group around us in which interaction is characterized by
intimate, face-to-face association and cooperation. (esp. family)
George Herbert Mead:
- ideas became the foundation of symbolic interactionism
- thinking is possible only if we can communicate symbolically
- symbols come from society and they enable us to think
- *key to socialization = taking the role of the other
 involves anticipating how others will see and react to you.
Three states in taking the role of the other:
- imitative stage
- X conception of a separate self, insufficient language for communication
- : not true role-playing… just mimicking.
- play stage
- imaginative (imagine how ppl will respond w/o having to act out the situation)
- manipulate various roles through language
- role: defined according to the children’s desire to please significant others.
- X see role-playing as social necessity…
- difficulty coordinating their actions with others
- game stage
- expected behavior, awareness of their importance to group
- generalized other: a conception of how ppl in general will respond.
 internalized: values, attitudes, beliefs understood to be part of the society
 assuming others’ reaction.
- respond to our idea of the organized group of which we are a part.
- observe the conduct of other ppl, ascertain their viewpoints, anticipate expectation of
our behavior, and then plan, rehearse, modify, and perfect our behavior…
The “I” and the “Me”:
- “internal conversation” occurs and develop throughout our lives
- I: subjective self
- acts
- spontaneous, active, experiencing.
- Me: objective self
- reflects on our actions through the lens of social norms, values, and expectations.
- conformist, reflective, and experienced.
Paul Willis:
- ID continues among teens and young adults
- variations in the social contexts
- class, racial, ethnic, gender, and regional differences.
- different institutions
- distinct symbolic resources that influence expression and how others see them.
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Document Summary

Self: a sense of individual identity that allows us to understand who we are in relation to others and to differentiate ourselves from them. Socialization: a process of social interaction in which we learn the way of life in our society and develop and identity. Tools (e. g. symbols, norms, values) allow us to master nature and build orderly societies. Socialization makes social interaction, social organization, and social order possible. Individual differences are ~ product of socialization. Primary socialization: the crucial learning process that occurs in childhood and initiates our entry into society. Secondary socialization: occurs after people have already undergone primary socialization. The human brain provides the physiological apparatus required for interpreting experiences, but unless children have the opportunity to learn, reason, and solve problems in early life, the brain itself may not fully develop. Evidence for how critical social interaction is to our development as human beings: i). Feral children- grow up alone in the wilderness/raised by wild animals.

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