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Chapter 3

New Society Chapter 3-Socialization.docx

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Chapter 3 Socialization What is SocializationNegativism can be difficult stage to live through for both the parents and the child but childhood experts insist it is an essential stage in developing a sense of self and becoming an autonomous independent human being Negativism is a way that child learns what really can or cannot be done form of rebellion in which the child sets limits for the parents The social process whereby they undergo such development through interacting with the people around them is known as SOCIALIZATION To be socialized means to learn hot to act and interact appropriately with other to become a competent and effective member of societyyet sociologists assert that to be socialized is also to develop a self a sense of individual identity that allows us to understand ourselves and differentiate ourselves from others Each of these processes depends on and implies the other To have a self we must interact with others to interact competently we must reflect on and understand ourselves in relation to others Socialization is an active and interactive process o Active process since those being socialized participate and to which they contributeo Interactive process since those who are socializing like the parents are themselves undergoing a learning process Socialization is a lifelong process of social interaction during which the individual obtains a selfidentity and skills needed for living in societyThe crucial learning that transforms us into cultural beings proceeds through interaction with others who are important to us and usually to whom we are important Primary Socialization crucial learning process that happens in childhood and makes us members of society o Important to becoming who and what we areSecondary Socialization learning that happens after people have undergone primary socializationo Happens following the first few years of life when the individual is able to communicate symbolically has developed a sense of self and can well imagine themselves in someone elses positiono Ongoing feature of our liveslive in world of constant and dramatic change Socialization makes social interaction social organization and social order possible Norms regulate behaviour ex Sidewalk behaviour social norms make social life orderly and allow use to deal with and interact with hundreds of anonymous strangers dailyNorms constrain us they channel and guide our behaviour in everyday life Content of socialization differs greatly from one society to anotherPeople in a certain society learn the norms values and lifestyles specific to their social environment Within every society individuals differ in significant ways from one another to some extent is the product of socialization Each person is influenced by distinctive or overlapping subcultures of family and friendsSubculturesis a group within the larger culture that has distinctive values norms and practices Nature and Nurturewe cant deny that some human behaviour is the result of biological factors we are not born human we become human through the process of social interaction Socialization is essential both to the physical wellbeing and to the social competence of an infant even when as in the case of Anna infants survive lack of interaction and caring in early childhood they are incapable of becoming fully competent active members of societyThe children have not had the chance to develop a self they have no sense of social identity in in terms in which they understand themselves and others around themSelf is a point of reference for planning and orientation for sorting and assessing lifes situations in terms of importanceThe Self and Socialization Importance of the body for constructing self and identity Nonnormative bodies can profoundly influence a persons self and identity Self is not fixed a study of weightloss surgery they were new people in terms of body and self they thought the surgery removed the layers of fat to reveal the real body and its corresponding real selfSocializationinvolves not only learning about others but also developing a sense of selfProcess of selfgrowth theories of scholars Charles Horton CooleyGeorge Herbert Mead and modified by Paul WillisCharles Horton CooleyIntroduced the idea of lookingglass self gestures and reactions of others are a mirror or looking glass in which we see ourselvesCooleys emphasis was less on the actual responses of others than our imagination or interpretation of those responses Without the social mirror there can be no sense of selfSelfimage emerges as a product of involvement in groupscommunication with others The first images of the self are received from significant others those people such as parents who are of central importance to the individual in the development of the self Other images both complement and supplant those first images especially as the childs interaction network expandsRole played by the primary group the small group especially the family that is characterized by intimate facetoface association and cooperation
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