SOC 101 CHAPTER 9.doc

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12 Apr 2012
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Chapter 9
My mother’s pet theory:
What is development:
Development was an ideas at first, until ww2 the idea grown into a full-blown project
After ww2----development- a process that generated economic growth, industrailaization and
modernization in regions and countries perceived to be poor, traditional and undevelpped.
Nowadays, more complexmeaning, progress for women, empowerment of the underpriviledged and
environmental sustainability
Two factors:
1. cold war involved intense competition between two rival blocs to amass power by gaining
influence and control over less developed countries
2. business interested in new markets outside their traditional operation places for geopolitical and
economic reasons
capitalism
THE RELEVANCE OF DEVELOPMENT AND GLOBAL INEQUALITITES: SOCIAL JUSTICE
AND SECERITY
1. morally unacceptable for more than a billion people to earn a dollar or less a day
2. having so many people in the world but so little to sustain them, unpleasant implications.
Personal security can not be divorces fro the living condition of our neignbours
EARLY THEORIES OF DEVELOPMENT
Development ins stages:
Charles Darwin debate in the natural sciences deepy influence social thinkers. Just as animals and
plants pass through stages of development so do societies.
1960s, w.w.rostow –stages of development:
Beginning: society might be traditional, undifferentiated and developed, science and technology
develops
Takeoff: occur when and increase in market transactions, manufacturing and trade takes place
Modernization theory:
Emphasize the importance of value and norms as drivers of development.
David maclelland, importance of entrepreurship. Societies which encourage entrepreneurship are
more likely to develop
Importance of other values—need for savings, investment innovation and education\
Development happens when the citizens of the poor countries adopt the virtues of the developed
noth, otherwise, they remain in the pathological, undeveloped state
Dependence theory
(underdevelopment as a process involving one area extracting surplus from other areas)
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