SOC101Y1 Chapter Notes - Chapter Chapter 9: Canadian Medical Association, Pierre Trudeau, Conversion Therapy

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10 Feb 2016
School
Department
Course
Sexuality
(Vol.1 p325-357)
9.1 The Canadian Context
! Hate crimes are specifically identified as distinct from other forms of crimes
because they inflict a Disproportionate harm exceeds harm inflicted on
individuals; has as its goal to intimidate and/or injure an entire community
1) hate crime attack a core feature of the victim’s identity, with the implication
that there is nothing the victim can do to prevent being the target of an
attack
2) negatively impact entire communities by making other members of a
venerable group fear
3) a crime is motivated by hate, the injuries and damage inflicted on victims
are more severe
" Bill C-250 was introduced to add sexual orientation to the text of subsection
318(4)
! Bill-389 seeks to include both gender identity and gender expression as
prohibited grounds for discrimination
" Gender identity the gender that a person feels him or herself to be.
Sometimes gender identity is concordant with one’s assigned sex at
birth ,and sometimes one’s gender identity is more fluid, or can be ‘opposite’
to one’s sex of rearing
" Gender expression how we express our gender (as masculine, feminine,
tomboys or androgynous, as butch, straight, etc.)
! Sexuality individuals are classified as heterosexual, bisexual, or homosexual,
based on their emotional and sexual attractions, relationships, and
self-identification
! Transgender persons who do not fit neatly into either the male or female
category, or whose behaviour is not congruent with the rules and expectations for
their sex in society with which they live
! Lesbigays a collective term sometimes used to refer to lesbians, gays, and
bisexuals
! GLBT – a term used to refer collectively to gays, lesbians, bisexuals, and
transgender dered individuals
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9.2 The Global Context
! Currently, in 10 countries you are given the death penalty for partaking in same
sex activity (i.e. Somalia)
! In general, countries throughout the world are moving toward increased legal
protection of sexual orientation minorities
! Public legitimation of same-sex relations is occurring in the global society
# Between 1984 and 1995, 86 countries changed their policies regarding
same-sex
# South Africa became the first country to include in its constitution banning
discrimination based on sexual orientation
# In Canada, Pierre Trudeau protected same-sex sexual activity between two
consenting adults as a private matter since 1969
9.3 Homosexuality and Bisexuality
! Kinsey suggested an individual’s sexuality may have both heterosexual and
homosexual elements, and that exclusive heterosexuality and homosexuality
represent two ends of a continuum
" Difficult of classifying individuals as heterosexual, homosexual, or
biosexual, demonstrating the poor grounds for creating such medicalized
types
! Origins of sexual-orientation diversity
$ Environmental explanations
# Factors such as availability of sexual partners, early sexual experiences, and
sexual reinforcement influence subsequent sexual orientation
$ Biological Origins of sexual orientation
# Focus on genetic or hormonal differences between heterosexuals and
homosexuals
# Science has yet to find a “homosexuality gene” despite the statistical
evidence of its existence
% (Hamer) examine gay brothers: Xq 28 at the X chromosome
# researchers continue in the quest to islate a biological cause of human
sexuality
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