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Chapter 1

SOC101Y1 Chapter Notes - Chapter 1: Christopher Jencks, Misgivings, Elusive Quality

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Chapter 1, chapter 2-22-36, 36-50, chapter3
Chapter 1 page 9
Deviance not a sing problem with a single solution
- The state has designated a pool of deviants who are exploited for dramatic purposes-
FOUCAULT- observed that it has long been apparent that prisons generate criminology it is not
neglect nor ignorance that prevents the obligation of prison
- The political domination of analyze can turn sociology into combination of class, gender, race
and war, where their ideas are judged by their impact of conflict
- QUINNEY and Plitte said that sociology of deviance must be surrender to the ideological
struggle and must promote those truths that fuel the revolution, now there are newer
arguments that respond to surveys and feminism that argue for the control of deviance with all
excitement of administrative criminologist they once criticized
- Marxist historians claim that deviance may provide a history from below and unofficial
commentary of dispossessed on their own paths
- Poachers and smugglers can be used to show hostility that intended the emergence of class
society in England, it attempts to enclose land were meant by demand based in traditional rights
of people to use pastures, forests, and commons
- Deviance can take in political directions- homosexuality
- When you put together deviance with politics it becomes unclear, argument can turn to
weather people are freedom fighters or terrorists
- There is a debate whether a riot a political event or lawlessness
- Different cultures have different laws where one culture will think one is deviant while another
culture may find it un deviant such as Singapore which finds chewing gum to be deviant
Sources of Diversity:
- Sociology not enclosed or sealed against arguments that exist in the wider world. Different types
of occupations have reported problem of deviance and tried to impose their own opinions on
deviance, each has a stake in the outcome because the acceptance of a particular view confirms
a system of laws and morals or politics that has implications for the rise and fall of policies and
occupations. Each have their own views and a different system of taking matters
- Sociology has its own language and techniques but it has also fed on ideas that have originated
in other fields- radical sociology can trace its lineage back to such thinkers as Plato, Kant, and
Marx. The sociology of deviance is another opportunity to organize all that has passed for
relevant intellectual work
- Such interplay of projects and thoughts become more complicated as the minds of different
sociologists work on the materials offered them. There is an increasing body of arguments,
criticisms, and studies, and no sociologist is capable mastering, reading, or remembering all that
is produced. What is held to be fascinating and provocative now may later be dull. The
significance of a theory is unstable and will depend on the circumstances of those who
encounter it and on its place in a sequence of thoughts
- The sociology of deviance has thereby accumulated a vast number of nuances- these nuances
may become exaggerated and publicized as sociologists, often working in a university pursuing
the new and the original. Sociologists strive to be new and be set apart as an original thinker
- Product differentiation has inevitably been accompanied by the making of proprietorial claims-
people tend to acquire very real stakes in their ideas and are reluctant to share authorship or
ownership and may strive to guard them against adulteration. Douglas says that theories are
right to some degree but they all deal with small parts thinking they are the whole thing making
the theories become distortions of complex realm of human life
- Then there is the impact of the academy that both spurs and limits the growth of intellectual
variety universities and disciplines enforce their own special controls. These universities
condemn some ideas and upholds others
- The matter is yet further complicated by the very different traditions that are born by the
university departments and schools in which deviantology is studied and taught processes of
natural selection may be inhibited because institutions of learning are so numerous and the
sociological profession is so large that antagonists need never confront one another. Advocates
of a particular theory can surround themselves with their own circle of followers to create,
examine, and extend its ideas without much interference from outsiders.
- Such insulation can be further reinforced by the division of intellectual labor within universities.
students require schooling and universities recruit staff to teach them, and there is a
weakening of the ability to monitor and judge the works of one’s colleagues in the same
The social contexts of Differentiation
Marxism- deviance is held to stem from the defects of capitalism, that is the moral disorganization,
inequalities, and possessive industrialism of a society based on social class. Having become classless it
was argued a truly Marxist society could not engender crime, as the director of Moscow said socialism
does not give birth to crime
Paul Wiles is the head of RDS says work will play a key role in supporting all seven home office
Research goes towards a model of natural science employing statistical methods in practical
projects designed to support government policies. It leans towards rational choice theory- the
vision of men and women as people bent on increasing rewards and averting pain in a context
riddled with risk. Clarke and Cornish said of rational choice theory that its focus is on offenders
as rational decision makers calculating where their self interest lies
Criminology is influenced by the cultural context
Sociology has been grafted onto institutions whose structure defines its character and evolution
In Canada scholars who study deviance are usually scattered among departments of sociology,
psychology, law and social administration. The outcome has been the introduction of complexity
and greater diversity
Sociology of deviance is diverse
Readers at the beginning of their study of deviance should be open-minded, skeptical and
charitable- there will be a need to prefer a theory but it would be unwise to do so without first
having considered the others that are likely to have some merit. Ideas can be appreciated is
there is some willingness to take their authors’ assumptions and preoccupations seriously. It is
better to examine the work for what it may offer than to examine its failings
Only rarely will a single study exhaust all the interesting possibilities of a problem -
anthropologists like the Innis might obtain access to a family of organized criminals. It would
have been impossible to examine all such families or even every aspect of one single family.
One should not forget that we treat sociology as a reservoir of different or sometimes
contradictory arguments that can be dismantled and reassembled with some freedom. Yet there
is a curious tendency in sociology to proceed as if all these random sightings should be treated
as attempts to confront an identical problem with identical data
Deviance theories are extensions of common-sense arguments
Sociology requires proof often missing in everyday talk
Sociological theories of deviance tend to represent the most articulate versions of arguments
that have currency in everyday life- theorizing on deviance has touches on delicate, moral and
social matters, and it is difficult to challenge it. Deviance will continue to be justified as long as
they are religious, and reflective than their alternatives. They are conscious deployment of
techniques and critical procedures not in common use. They are supported by body of field
work and research. Even when it is flawed which often it is confrontation with the obvious
defects can force the reader to think usefully and think about criticism and alternatives.
Sociologists often display a willingness to become closely involved with matters that most
people shun- not only is it eccentric or even shocking to support certain arguments about
deviance but it is discreditable to associate with deviance without good purpose, such as drug
dealers, robberies , etc. Christopher Jencks said that in self defense we can only say our errors is
less than if we simply consulted our prejudices, which is the usual alternative. The judgment of
theory therefore should not be judged, for it puts arguments in solid form. Thus functionalism
and Marxism can put forth unknown terrain even to their opponents.
It should not be assumed that sociology of deviance is has evolved smoothly or logically nor
later ideas necessarily displace those that went before
Chapter 2:
- Deviance is a term used to refer to various kinds of behaviour that contravene a social norm,
rule, or law therefore finding information about deviance is hard since people need to be
secretive about the deviant acts they commit