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Canada (158,185)
Sociology (1,479)
SOC101Y1 (470)

Chapter Nine

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University of Toronto St. George
Bonnie Fox

Chapter 9: Divorce and Reparenting – 4/10 first marriages end in divorce Divorce in Context Historical Overview of Divorce: – has two stages: an ancient historical phase and a modern historical phase + developed as a stage in life course shortly after marriage was created – an event that took place infrequently + when occurred, highly regulated and permitted only to men of influence. – Mid 1800's divorce rates began to rise + increased participation of women in paid workforce allowed them to reduce their economic dependency on a breadwinning partner + women no longer required to remain in unfilling marriages for financial security + employment tend to provide women with greater diversity of roles and identities beyond those of wife, mother, and homemaker – DivorceAct: affected divorce rates + granted divorce for couples who had experienced marital breakdown and been separated for three years. – No-fault divorce: divorce is not either partner's fault was not intended by legislators Determinants of Divorce: – increased labor force participation of women was correlated to an increase in divorce – lack of social integration – more complex family forms and secondary marriages were found to be at a greater risk of dissolving + cohabitation along with premarital pregnancy and childbirth – fertility decreased the chances of divorcing + more child, more effective + childless couples more likely to divorce and process is more rapid – parents of sons less likely to divorce – more family income → less divorce + more female employment → more divorce Current Trends: – higher-order marriages: marriages after a first marriage – major risks of divorce: marrying before age 20, low SES, periods of unemployment, cohabitation with the partner one marries or with another partner, premarital birth, stepchildren, interracial marriage, growing up in a home without two continuously parents, and higher-order marriages The Divorce Process: The Diverse Nature of Divorce: – experiences of people who've gone through it varied, as a result, the outcomes of those involved (child well-being, financial or social costs) will also vary – divorce variation and fluidity model/DVFM: ecology of divorce in which socio-historical context, gender, race, cultural values, legal context, and economic conditions are part of the ecosystem with which couples and families must contend as they go through the process of divorce + impact on both child and adult well-being is considered both leading up to divorce event and following it + risk factors and protective factors are recognized as influencing the adjustment of both the children and the adults affected - involves pre and pose divorce family conflict, financial consequences, and the reality of reduced parent-child interaction + protective factors include human and social capital qualities such as coping skills and support communities. – DVFM model highlights diversity of potential pathways into and out of divorce. + factors affecting diversity: family form or composition as the divorce process unfolds + young couple without any children may move through divorce process with less discomfort than a larger family – family structure may change in middle of process with birth of a child or acknowledgment of a third person involved + children may leave home/extended family may move in – Women more likely to initiate divorce, tied to economic implications. Men's decisions strained by children. – Age of spouses and duration of union at onset of divorce process is another differentiating factor + with age at marriage rising and women delaying childbirth, standard life course timetable is adhered to less + divorce at an early age provide greater opportunity for remarriage, while divorce at an older age may take place when children are no longer at home, resulting in different experiences + shorter marriages involve less personal investment and easier to end + cultural norms affect divorce experience – Society no longer viewed divorce as failure but as an option for freedom to start over – natural – No-fault divorce + unilateral form (initiated by one spouse) or non-unilateral form requires no cause for divorce Diverse Explanations of Divorce: – rates tell us the relationship between two items + divorce rates compare number of divorces and the number of marriages + to begin with, a person is at risk of divorce only if they can actually divorce – must be married at legal age of 18 – Divorces per marriage: + number of divorces in year XXXX/ number of marriages in year XXXX + problem: overestimates the actual divorce rate because denominator is a smaller set of people than are actually at risk of divorce - everyone married prior to the year of calculation is not included in the set of people who are at risk of divorce – Crude Divorce Rate: + number of divorces in year XXXX/mid-year population in year XXXX + conservative cause the denominator includes many people who are not at risk of a divorce such as babies, children, and single, and widowed individuals – Cohort Ever-Married Divorce Rate: + number of first divorces among those born in year XXXX/number of ever-married persons born in year XXXX + gives a historical account of a group of individuals who are all born in a similar period + limitations: data are less generalizable to the rest of population and that rate will change depending on the year in which it's calculated. Longer the time, greater the likelihood that divorce may occur – Refined Divorce Rate: + Number of divorces in year XXXX/number of currently married in the population in year XXXX + very accurate measure but difficult to calculate since, a
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