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SOC101Y1 Chapter Notes -Charlton Ogburn, Mechanical And Organic Solidarity, Parental Leave


Department
Sociology
Course Code
SOC101Y1
Professor
Bonnie Fox

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Chapter 8: Institutions:
family is one of several social institutions that influence one another
+ ie: education system – type and location of school selected as well as length of time spent in
formal education
- tied to career choices made later in life, which may in turn require the need to relocate to obtain
work
+ labor institution influences family where to live
+ religion affect family's schedule in terms of when and where they gather with their faith
community
+ although government's an institution isn't mentioned directly, it affected the family by
establishing laws regarding universal child education, parental leave policies, retirement payouts,
and the way in which childcare is provided and funded
institutional influence does not remain constant across life course of individuals or family.
+ as people move through educational system, they're steered toward career choices as well as
toward potential mates who reflect their own values
+ these early life choices have a lasting impact across the rest of the life
Plato: little regard for family and its place among institutions such as the government
Aristotle: family is a key component to a healthy, stable society
Marx & Weber: economic importance to the family.
- Weber: close family ties hindered the growth of capitalism.
- Protestant Reformation – transfer of affinity from kin to one's religious community freed
individuals to produce goods and services more rapidly, which helped to fuel the expansion of
capitalism
Durkheim: saw institutions of family and religion as the foundation of societal development
+ traditional views on gender interdependence and divorce
+ emphasis on structural importance of working together rather than pure patriarchal
+ viewed developmental progression of mechanical solidarity into organic solidarity as support
for theory that family size will continue to shrink as development increases, passing through the
stages of extended family to focus on conjugal families and ultimately to single-parent families
Zimmerman & Ogburn:
+ family's steady loss of function to increasingly powerful corporations and government
+ home becoming a parking place for parents and children, who spend most of their time
elsewhere, and argued that the state should assist people with this inevitable path
+ could do it by ensuring full-time employment for mothers and universal daycare for children –
goal: individualization of society
Three types of family over history:
+ 1. trustee family: locus of power in kinship connections
+ 2. atomistic family: characterized by strong individualism and weak influence of family on its
members
+ 3. domestic family: a balance of power exists between the family and other social institution
+ trustee family followed by domestic family and then the atomistic family
family, as an institution, is bigger than the individual members within it and is subject to the
influences of other social institutions, such as religion and education, on the behaviors of its
individual members
+ Durkheim: family had an important effect on reducing the prevalence of suicide – provided
social cohesion, reducing the potential levels of anomie
+ as social institution, family has a direct impact on many life course outcomes that affect
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