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SOC101Y1 (470)
Chapter 1

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University of Toronto St. George

Soc 210 – Ethnicity Chapter 1 The puzzles of Ethnicity and Race - The 20 century despite the contradiction became an ethnic century. The examples below focus on conflict and division.  WW2  1960 Nigeria won their independence from great Britain, however, conflicts over the distribution of power among ethnic groups and regions erupted  In USA during 1960s and 1970s ethnic mobilization occurred due racial groups proclaiming distinctive identities and as well struggled with same rights and resources  in Malaysia of 1971 amended the constitution to secure the preferential treatment of Malays in education, business, and the government against the objections of the sizable Chinese and other ethnic population  1980s and 1990s Tamil and Sinhalese violence still continues in 21 century  1991 disintegration of the soviet union- regions were in chaos over rights  1990s attacks by German skinheads directed against Turks, Greeks, Spaniards  in 1993 time magazine published an issue about America devoted to multiculturalism  in 1995 French Canadians in the province of Quebec came within a few votes to decide to separate from the rest of Canada  Finally in Yugoslavia ethnic cleansing emerged from the chaos that followed the breakup of the former Yugoslavia federation in southern Europe and engulfed the nascent country of Bosnia. - Ethnic and racial diversity and identity are also sources of pride, unity, and achievement. - On USA campus, in corporations, and in major cities, leaders dealing with ethnic and racial issues argued that diversity should be strength and not a weakness.  When the gymnastic team won there was a sense of pride because an Asian American and an African American were on the team. There was a sense of accomplishment.  The idea of multiculturalism did not only occur in the United States. Mexico claimed multicultural heritage with the Indians and Spanish people. Germans became a unified country st - As the 21 century began, these forces showed little signs of abating. Examples are following  September 11- Arabs became objects of suspicion.  Hurricane Katrina exposed a racial divide in New Orleans  Northern African Muslims torching neighbourhoods in Paris  Kurds struggling for autonomy in Iraq  These examples illustrate that race and ethnicity serve as vehicles of political assertion, tools for exclusion and exploitation, sources of unity, and reservoirs of destructive power An unexpected persistence and Power - Ethnicity and race has been expected to disappear as forces to be reckoned with in the modern world - Robert parks an American sociologist and professor argued that certain forces would dismantle the prejudice and boundaries that se
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