Deviance is a term used to refer to various kinds of behaviour that go against a social norm, rule or law. As a result finding evidence of deviance is difficult because people do it secretively. Sociologists developed techniques for investigating deviant behaviour and their social implications: observation. Sociologists also study how rules are created in society: historical, comparative. Deviance: banned or controlled behaviour likely to receive punishment or disapproval. Deviant actors make their lives more dangerous and difficult by breaking rules. Deviants are also uncooperative when they are detected. Deviants rarely engage in collective efforts to interpret their own behaviour. Time consuming to gain intimacy with deviants to observe acts: this will be a partial sighting (particular gang, cannot attempt to apply this sample to others and/or make it universal) Theories and theorist will define phenomena differently because of: time changes, divergence based on variety of choices.