New Society- Chapter 18: Politics and Social Movement
In the chapter you will learn that:
• The level of democracy in a society depends on the capacity of citizens to influence the
state through their support of political parties, social movements, and other
groups. That capacity increased as power becomes more widely distributed in
• The degree to which power is widely distributed influences the success of particular
kinds of parties and policies.
• People sometimes riot, strike and take other forms of collective action to correct
perceived in justices. When they do so, that are participating in social movements.
• People are more inclined to rebel against the status quo when they are bound by close
social ties to other people who feel similarly wronged and when they have the
money and other resources needed to protest.
• For social movements to grow, members must make activities, ideas, and goals of the
movement congruent with the interests, beliefs and values of potential new
• The history of democracy is a struggle for the acquisition of constantly broadening
• 1968 was the year that student riots in France nearly caused the fall of the gov't of
Charles de Gaulle. The suppression of student strikes by the Mexican gov't left
dozens of students dead. American students at their universities fought for free
speech on campuses. An end to American involvement in the war in Vietnam,
increased civil rights for American blacks, and an expanded role for women in
• Power is the ability of an individual or a group to impose its will on others, even if they
! Power of a group may be widely recognized as legitimate or valid under some
• (If it is) Raw power becomes legitimate authority.
! 3 bases of authority- according to M. Weber
i. Traditional Authority- Particularly in tribal and feudal societies, rulers
inherit authority through family or clan ties. In such circumstances;
people believe the right of a family or clan to monopolize
leadership derives from a god's will.
ii. Legal- rational Authority- In modern societies, authority derives from
respect for the law. Laws specify how one can achieve office.
People generally believe these laws are rational. If someone
achieves office by following these laws, their authority is
iii. Charismatic authority- Sometimes, extraordinary, charismatic
individuals challenge traditional or legal rational authority. They
claim to be inspired by a god or some higher principle that
transcends traditional authority; such as the principle that all
people are created equal. Their claim is widely believed.
Charismatic figures often emerge during a political revolution, a