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Chapter 8

Chapter 8-addiction notes.docx

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University of Toronto St. George

Chapter 8- Addictions- Social Problems INTRO  ‘Addiction’- behavior = uncontrolled, repeated or frequent, socially disapproved & possibly harmful have a medical label  2 most popular addictions = Drugs & alc  other socially disapproved behaviors include sex, shopping , internet, eating addictions, gambling perhaps not exactly addictions but exhibit personal weaknesses  Gambling = closet to proving itself that it is a new important form of addiction ADDICTION  Medical definition- Addiciton- AMERICAN PSYCHIATRIC As. & WORLD HEALTH ORG’N – 7 criteria/questions to see if drug/alc addict saying yes >=3 means you’re an addict.  Says nothing about how often person uses drug or alc Addictive Behavior - T:8.1 - Tolerance - Desire to cut down - Withdrawl - Difficulty controlling use - Negative consequences - Putting off or neglecting activities - Spending significant time or emotional energy  Issue = trouble controlling use, where negative impacts occur, whenever you do substance  Social effects of addiction (by drugs,alc or gambling) huge in broken families, health consequences for addicts & their loved ones, lost work days, cost of treating & ‘fixing’ addicts addition crime & safety issues at stake  Get Sociological & public health approach by turning a side a purely medical, psychiatric or psychological understanding of addicts allows to see personal trouble into a public issuerecognition social causes of addiction  Medical approach- focus attention on addicted individual & his/her personal pathology  Sociological & public health approach- focus on social facores that increase the risks that certain ppl , or groups will develop addictions  Understand our society, & our social policies, that promote harmful, additive behaviors & how we can change society to reduce those risks ADDITICTIVE GAMBLING  Gambling = behavior on a continuum, ranging from non-gamblers to rec’l gamblers to problem gamblers  in ay pop’n a fraction will progress across continuum  CANADIAN PROBLEM GAMBLING INDEX(CPGI) – 1/50 cdns has serious gambling problem out 32 million ppl 75% >=20 yrs 480000 cdns have problem  ELEMENTS OF CPGI(T 8.2) 1. Behaviours - bet more than can afford - increased wages - returned to win back losses - borrowed money or sold anything to gamble 2. Adverse Effects -felt gambling problem - suffered criticism -feeling of guilt -financial problems -negative health effects *CPGI is a scale *Note the similarities between T 8.1 & T 8.2  There are physiological effects in drug/alc addiction but not gambling gambling focuses more on financial & social outcomes  Like alc & drugs major source of revenue for organized crime = gambling  2 half 20 century government legalize gambling take share of profits promote gambling for even greater profit returns  Some money reinvested in ‘public goods’  even include research on problem gambling  Gambling public health issue G has social causes & health outcomes it is behavior learned socially through observation, experimentation, reward & emulation  learn to gamble in families during childhood  Society features contribute to gambling problems game features design of lottery machine or video lottery terminals (vlt)makes gambling seem cool, fun, desirable  Widespread & growing of gaming availability of gambling= increasingly availability, casino promotions & incentives, free buses, free meals, etc.  Most social science work on gambling takes Psychological approach- focuses on the thinking & behavior of indivduals w/out considering their social enviro -ex. It views addtictive gambling as result of cognitive distortion bad thinking about odds of winning & value of chasing losses - Goal of psychological counseling = get gambles to THINK differently about what there doing & act differently  Large body of research has identified link between gambling & mood disorders, including depression, anxiety & bipolar disorder people that are impulsive or display anti-social behavior, drink too much, & are lonely or socially isolated CLASSIC WORKS- HOWARD BECKER’S OUTSIDERS(1963)  Sociologist Howard Becker- professional jazz musician  ‘outsiders’- jazz musicians & weed smokers  Book-‘Outsiders’ set groundwork for labeling theory social groups create deviance by making rules whose infraction constitutes deviance and by applying these rules to particular ppl & labeling them as outsiders Deviance = result of dominant group= insiders devising & applying moral rules to less powerful groups of ‘outsiders’ ARE DRUGS & ALC SOCIAL PROBLEMS?  DRUGS- any substance that causes a biochemical rxn with body  what ppl define as legal or an illegal drug depends less on its chemical properties(less on the rxns w. your body) & more on surrounding economic, social & political factors.  In cda use legal drugs(alc, tobacco, prescription) > use illegal drugs  Members of society treat use of illegal drugs as major problem while ignoring harm done by legal drugs society’s response to drug use is irrational  Opium commonly used painkiller until early 1900’s opium & cocaine were thought as dangerous & subjected to strict control, if not an outright ban reason is sociological, not pharmacological the chemical properties of drug did not change only publics opinion of their effects & those who used them changed  A commonly used drug was restricted or criminalized when prevailing attitudes changed these changes were rarely bc of new medical research findings changes were bc of new attitudes towards immigrants or racial minorities who were somehow associated w. the drugs changes in turn often reflects new economic & social concerns changes penalized the least powerful members of society  DRUG ABUSE – depends largely on what ppl define as an ‘acceptable’ drug at a particular time & place.  Ideas of alc & drug abuse begin with a notion of extreme or unsuitable use that results in social, psychological & physiological harm  2 aspects to this idea of abuse : objective & subjective  objective aspect relies on physical, mental or social evidence that the use of the drug harms the individual & society ex. Drug dependency routine need for a drug for physical reasons ( ex. Avoid withdrawal symptoms) or psychological reasons (ex. Keep a sense of well-being)  Tolerance  decreased effectiveness of any given drug bc repeated use larger & larger doses to get same effect  Occasional drinkers= ‘unable to hold liquor’ MEDICALIZATION & THE TRANSFORMATION OF A PROBLEM Increasingly, over past centurytendency to ‘medicalize’ addictions to drugs, alc & even gambling  Medicalization process through which behaviors- esp’y those formerly defined as deviant, sinful, or immoral now considered instances of illness no longer sinful since outside personal control  Process of Medicalization become increasingly important in defining social problems w. the triumph of science over religion where alc abusers once thought of as sinners or moral weaklings & subjected to scorn/ criticism  with MEDICALIZATION become sick ppl on need of treatment.  This is a new way of controlling deviant behavior put control doctors hands rather than clergy medical profession extends its turf & influence on society to point where medical doc’s are deemed the ones who are able to declare people who fit society  Medicalization temp’y excuses the ‘affliction’(state of pain, misery or distress)- a perceived benefit to drug abuser- & raises the power of doctors in society  Currently alc in moderation considered ‘ clean’ but those who use illicit street drugs = ‘dirty’ & part of drug subculture (group of ppl who share common attitudes, beliefs & behaviors surrounding drug use. These attitudes & beliefs diff significantly from those of most ppl in the wider society) ex. Seen in current views about crack cocaine spread mainly by police and religious-moral leaders in their ‘war on drugs’ views are crack = instantly addictive, leads ppl to binge on drugs & ruins lives  Poor ppl = crack cocaine, while middle/upper class = powdered cocaine.  bc of class connotation, label ‘crack head’ intensely stigmatizing SOCIAL AND PHYSICAL CHARACTERSTICS OF ADDICTIONS 1. ALC  Is on of the most destructive substances when abused  Ppl drink alc to achieve its chemical effects= to relax, smooth social events, reduce tension, & slow down perceptual, cognitive & motor fxning  GOAL= escape for everyday life that’s often done in the company of others as part of shared, sociable haze  Impaired judgment often accompanies these chemical changes  Men much more likely to drink heavy as opposed to woman  Woman drink more responsible however more likely to use other chemical substances to cope with stress  Higher education also exercises a moderating influence on drinking cdns with uni degrees least likely to drink heavy 21 % cdns with less than high school education regularly drink heavily  Aside from sex & education Age is most important determinant of alc use  2004 CDN CAMPUS SURVEY1/3 of undergrad students engage in harmful drinking practices binge drinking & exhibit signs of alc dependency  Social factors affect drinking habits specifically they shape alc use & abuse in atleast 2 ways 1. By influencing the odds that a person will learn to use alc to cope with stress 2. By influencing the oppurtunities a person has to use alc for any reason BACK IN HISTORY WHY DID WOMAN TURN TO PILLS SO OFTEN?  ‘typical’ in womans purse bottle of tranquillizers was as common as lipstick, that they needed to be drugged  1950’s  anxiety caused by women’s discontent  MILTOWN = happy pill  About twice as many prescriptions for psychotropic drugs such as tranqs & anti-depressants are filled for woman rather then men. 2. TOBACCO  CDA’S major legal drug highly addictive blame for many health problems costly habit both for individual and society  Most adult smokers devolp habit of smoking before age 20.  MEN> WOMAN SMOKE.. although the gender gap has been narrowing for >25yrs  Ppl with less than a high school education are almost 3x more likely than uni grads to be current smokers  Tobacco smoking is influenced by social factors study on > 22000 Ont high school students found that teenagers more likely to smoke if : a) they have smoking friends b) have smoking family members &/or c) attend a school with a relatively high senior-student smoking rate  More common among teenagers with single parent due to lower levels of attachment tendency to rebel & less parental supervision  Among teens who experiment with smoking development of smoking habit is positively correlated w. poor academic performance, parental smoking, & having more than half of friends smoking  However negatively correlated with attending a school w. a clear anti- smoking policy & having confidence in one’s ability to succeed academically 3. ILLICIT DRUG ABUSE  Reduced likelihood of drug use/abuse = strong family bonds, strong religious commitment & normative boundaries that separate teens who occasionally use drugs socially from those who use them often or in isolation  INC likelihood of drug use includes when friends who are users and aprents who use tobacco or alc early initiation into drug use history of parental abuse  Working conditions also make difference workers w. low cognitive ability (mental process: attention, memory, understanding) make more use of cigs, alc & weed the more complex their job is… vise versa with ppl with high cognitive ability.  Opportunities to use drugs are common as youths get older  Likelihood of trying drugs, given the opportunity, also increases with age  Normative boundaries restricting girls access to and use of drugs are largely due to traditional gender roles that limit girls access to certain types of leisure & sociability  Males more likely to rec
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