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ALL SOC102 Starting Points (textbook) notes
ALL SOC102 Starting Points (textbook) notes

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University of Toronto St. George
Lorne Tepperman

Inequality Intro  Narratives of Blame  Socially constructed accounts attached Definitions to groups, justify advantages/disadvantages Social Problem – A social condition or pattern of behavior that is believed  Practices of Oppression  practices of economic/non-economic to warrant public concern and collective action; two aspects: behavior (exploitation, domination, exclusion, discrimination). objective & subjective First need Social differentiation may follow/precede narratives Objective Elements – The measurable features of a negative social of blame. condition. Such a condition might include Crime, poverty, or  Narratives of Validation  socially constructed accounts, alcohol abuse and can be considered and objective reality. counter narratives of blame. –ex. challenge factual accuracy of Subjective Elements – People’s evaluations of objective conditions and narratives of blame the processes that influence their evaluation. They include moral  Strategies of Resistance  collective (social) action, combat labels that people apply to particular acts or situations, and the practices of oppressions, reduce inequality. –ex. institutional accounts they give for these acts and situations completeness, legal action, social movement Social Imagination – Used by C. Wright Mills. Describes sociologist’s o struggle of one group may influence/energize another struggle ability to connect seemingly impersonal and remote historical  ex. later 1900s w/ civil rights, women’s right, LGBT forces to the most basic incidents of an individual’s life. The  Objective/Subjective aspects of Inequality sociological imagination enables people to distinguish between o objective aspect no impact w/o subjective aspects  problem is person troubles and public issues. acted on Social Constructionism – A sociological research approach that examines  then social consequential problem made known the ways people interact to create a shared social reality  Rousseau’s theory of inequality Moral Entrepreneurs – Term coined to describe people who “discover” o argues that social inequality must be proportional to be just and attempt to publicize deviant behaviors. Moral entrepreneurs  i.e. social inequality is justifiable if it in the same proportion with are crusading reformers who are disturbed by particular types of natural inequality  ex. tallness = basketball player evil they see in the world and who will not rest until something is o Any privilege/inequality not explained/justified by natural difference done to correct the problem. is contrary to natural right and to the laws of nature. Claim-Making – claims-making involves the promotion of a particular  Fairness and equality moral vision of social life and, thud, is anything people do to o Democratic equality  treat everyone the same propagate a view of who or what is a problem and what should be o Moralistic justice  reward biggest effort done about it o Weak humane justice  reward most economically disadvantaged, Symbols – Gestures, artifacts, and words that represent something else attempt to equalize final result Roles – The specific duties and obligations expected of those who occupy o Strong humane justice  reward all disadvantaged, a specific social status o Utilitarianism  reward the fastest learners Social group – A set of people, defined by formal or informal criteria of o What principle would you support here? membership, who feel unified or are bound together in stable  John Rawls: Do no (more) harm patterns o social justice = considering society from impartial standpoint Whistle Blowers – Employee in bureaucratic organization who bring  consider positions most underprivileged forward valid information about wrongdoing or illegal conduct by o i.e. inequality fair if for underprivileged –ex. affirmative action their organization and who are often punished for doing so  Functional Theory of Stratification Moral Panics – Public expressions of feelings and attitude typically based o socially important jobs w/ skills needed scare, talent rare, training on false or exaggerated perceptions that some cultural behavior or costly req. incentives group of people is dangerously deviant and poses a menace to  incentives = money, privileges, leads to inequalities society  but these jobs benefits all of society  then inequalities Latent functions – Hidden unstated and sometimes unintended benefits all of society consequences of activities in an organization or institution  views society as market, demand vs. supply. Norms – The rules and expectations of a society pertaining to appropriate o problems: behaviours under various social circumstance. Norms regulate  ignores inheritance of wealth and statues behaviour in different situations and large-scale norm violation  ignored disagreements about society’s “most important roles” often is viewed as social problem – a problem occurs when  doesn’t explain why leading figures in organize crime, sports traditionally normative behaviour is violated entertainment receive high wages –i.e. too many exceptions  Just World Theory – Lerner and Simmons  Inequality = hierarchical (i.e. better-worse) differences btwn two o Psychological strategies make world less threatening, assume  The intersection of inequalities everything just o social characteristics –ex. class, gender, race, and age – significantly o sacrifice leads to fair reward affect people’s well being o positives w/ belief in theory:  Certain person high on one factor, lower on other  life satisfaction, less anxiety & depression o Intersectionality: hard to predict the effects of inequality  gives confidence o sociologists can draw general conclusion / general theories about o Negatives: inequality  confirmation bias, avoid acknowledging unjust world  w/ understanding of particular dimensions and using models  Stages of social problems:  Habits of Inequality Theory o social recognition – problem first identified as a social concern o all society display various social inequalities o social legitimating – society/ various institutional elements recognize o social inequalities = socially constructed; basis = assumed natural social problem difference o mobilization for action – social organization planning remedial action o social inequalities all display similar patterns = cultural habits: o development and implementation of an official plan – ex. war on  Social differentiation  differentiating people; assumed drugs fundamental difference & unchangeable.  Structural Functionalism  Conflict Theory o society interconnected & interrelated for stability & efficiency o conflict theorists criticize structural functionalists o society req. consensus, cohesion, social control o originates from Marx and Engels  Robert Merton: social institutions manifest & latent functions o social problems b/c conflicting groups, classes, individuals struggle o social change/inequality create social disorganization & strain for dominance  encourage crime/deviance  cause inequality, conflict, change  social problems = failure of institutions (i.e. control) –ex.  mainly b/c economic inequalities btwn competing groups industrialization cause anomie  largely blame capitalists system o Social problem may strengthen social cohesion o conflict & change common in social life  Symbolic Interactionism  Population Health Perspective o society product of face-to-face interactions, focus on small group o population health = measure of society interactions o all common social inequalities have significant health consequences  view society composed of share meanings, definitions,  problems revealed by health declines interpretations held by interacting individuals o dealing w/ social problems goal = avoid & reduce har o social problems are socially constructed o problematic behavior socially learned o socialization & labeling encourage deviances and subcultures  Labeling theory: originate from symbolic interactionists o premise: given activity viewed as social problem if groups of people label it as such  then acted on by moral entrepreneurs Class Inequalities Definitions o Critical Theory: inequalities (unemployment) structural condition, Class – according to Marx, a group of people who share the same manipulated by ruling capitalist class to boost profits relationship to the means of production or to capital; according to  Marx: capitalism inevitable cycles of unemployment: profitable Weber a group of people who share a common economic situation, conditions  bursts of high productivity  over production  based on (among other things) income, property and authority prices & investments fall  economic bust (recession) Reserve Army of labor – People who, because they are impoverished and  workers suffer most in bust gain least in burst b/c no financial often unemployed, form an easily mobilized, easily disposable flexibility workforce at the mercy of employers  capitalists leverage unemployment against unwilling workers  Bourgeoisie – According to Marx, the controlling class, which owns the unemployment cycle fill reserve army of (replacement) labor means of production  workplace = repression and mistreatment Proletariat – According to Marx, the subordinate class, who work for o Feminist Theory: work & class disproportionally effect women wages from the bourgeoisie  capitalist profit more from women’s work then men’s work Class consciousness – A group’s awareness of their common class interest o Symbolic Interactionism: examines meanings produced from social and their commitments to work together to attain collective goals inequality False consciousness – A willingness to believe in ideologies that support  “wealthy” and “poor” labels constructed through social the ruling class but that are false and disadvantageous to working interaction  stereotypes class interest  work/unemployment central to one’s identity  occupation = Petite Bourgeoisie – The lower middle class; a group of people who own status symbols, access individual base on prestige & income the means of production on a small scale, such as owners of small o Social Constructionism: examines views about work & work control shops  work management practices evolved: simple control  Post-industrialism – An economic system based more on services and technological control  bureaucratic control information than on manufactured goods or primary production  50s 60s concern about alienation, dehumanizing work Non-standard work arrangements – Dead-end, low-paying, insecure jobs,  70s 80s exploitation of workers also known as precarious employment  currently, globalization of work, job insecurity  Class inequality Notes o different from other inequalities, differentiation completely socially  Views: constructed  culture of wealth/ culture of poverty o Functionalism: poverty/inequality important, gives o b/c socially constructed: no concrete feature/differences to rally motivation/incentive behind (unlike sexism, racism)  rewarding jobs = req investment (education, effort)  then strategies of resistance hard to establish  top jobs also more socially useful & valued –ex. physician o display similar patterns of SNPNS  inequalities encourages excellence & productivity,  Labor and Class unemployment = personal failure o Marx: “social class” determined by way people earn a living  however, investments & compensations & social value not  two main class: bourgeoisies and proletariat balanced –ex. nurses & teachers low pays, professional  two different opposed interested, permanent conflict but also entertainers highly paid interdependent  gain at expense of the other  Work’s economic purpose: for physical necessities: food, water,  Proletariats, no means of production, sell time & labor, earn shelter, clothing wages  Work’s social purpose: gives workers recognition, productive  Bourgeoisie, buy worker time & labor, sell goods & services gain member of society produce, gain profit  ideal work = satisfy worker’s social & physical needs  Lumpenproletariat, poor underclass, no regular income  “haves” vs. “have-nots” conflict fundamental to all social  Alienation relations & class conflict w/i capitalist society o Marx: note dissatisfaction, detachment from lives of industrial o Eric O. Wright (Marxist): bourgeoisies exploitation  3 criteria: workers  result of capitalism  inverse interdependence principle – economic well-being of  Alienated from product of work, worker no connection w/ capitalist req economic deprivation / exploitation of workers creation  exclusion principle – capitalists exclude workers from access to  Alienated from act of production: products taken away, work productive resources–ex. capital to setup own business, becomes meaningless housing, other jobs  Alienated from self as human, work = mechanical, robotic  appropriation principle – exploit workers, appropriate labor for  Alienated from other works, fellow workers seen as replaceable fraction of real value commodities o Weber: “social class” determined by money, status of occupation; o Melvin Seeman: 5 dimensions of alienation class mainly power groups  powerlessness & meaninglessness (Marxist), normlessness &  more complex than Marx & relevant in post-industrial society – isolation (Durkheim), self-estrangement (both) ex. petit bourgeoisies Labor and Monopoly Capital – By: Harry Braverman  economic class (occupation), parties and statues groups = power  Braverman influenced by Marx and Engels  examines evolution of sources capitalist production  parties = associations and organization, give people non-  concludes: work demands higher education, becoming mindless, economic power & influence –ex. political parities bureaucratic, alienating  statues groups = people w/ similar prestige, esteem, social o work degraded b/c capitalists increase control over labor position; maybe around a shared feature: religion, ethnicity, process race; practice exclusion, maintain boundaries btwn groups  -ex. separate manufacturing from design  combination of three determines power level  management goal: efficiency, costs & competiveness  strong economic control not req. for powerful position o white collar work proletarianized, more controlled, o both: class and occupation fundamentally linked regimented like factory work  workplace & social/economic inequalities related o Marx: poor working conditions, low wages, encourage workers to  Unions struggle  unions, legislation, job security o form of collective action; improve pay, job security  workers must develop class consciousness for united action  o Unions membership higher in Canada than USA, Japan; lower than difficult b/c no single distinct feature/quality to rally behind UK & Europe (unlike sexism, racism)  declined recently since mid-1900s: 26% of labor force (1999)   employers may prevent unionization w/ sympathetic legislators, 25% (2009) lobby, police forces  unionized employees older (41% aged 45 – 54) vs. ( 13% aged 15  influence of false consciousness  workers feel powerless, self – 24) blame  2003 avg union worker paid $21.01/hr, vs. mean: $16/65/hr  Types of work o Union formation correlated w/ class consciousness (awareness) o Manufacturing: developed in 1800s in Canada  Signify Class Distinction  past 40 years slowly declining o classes mostly economic relations, but performed (shown) thorough  new technology replaced workers, cheaper foreign labor o Service Sector culture means: o Leisure class contributes to Culture of Wealth  wide range (professionals lawyers to salespeople)  ex. private clubs req. private schooling, high educational  low-end service = most of precarious jobs credentials o Social reproduction sector  Theory of Conspicuous Consumption – wasteful consumptions  Caregiving, family, community service; mostly women demonstrates status of these groups, can afford to live lavishly  mostly unpaid labor  benefits capitalist system o Pierre Bourdieu: cultural capital (includes cultural symbols, practices o Informal economy etc. enhance social distinction), reproduce social domination, passed  undocumented work, untaxed earnings –ex. black market through generations –ex. art, style, beliefs  Current Work Trends:  cultural capital, symbolic goods = strategies of distinction o technology increased inequality  replaced bottom workers o Culture of poverty: perpetuates self-defeating values, feelings of  -ex. surveillance, manufacturing work marginality, helplessness, dependency, not belonging, inferiority o fasting growing employment type: precarious jobs  believe institutions useless  no security, no career, employers easily fire/hire, req. little skills  lack history = can’t see similarities btwn them and others o recent growth: under-employment, work below worker’s skill o Classes self-perpetuating, maintained by inhertiance o class politics replaced by identity politics The Children of Sanchez – By: Oscar Lewis  concern of racism, sexism over economic/social class  Studied an impoverished family’s children, culture of poverty o flexible workforce trend: worker req. various skills & flexibility  examined urban poor likely embrace certain view The Division of Labor in Society – By: Emile Durkheim o poor lack skills to better themselves, remains isolated  modern industrial societies different moral codes b/c 2 factors: o boys likely crimes, girls early pregnancy poor marriages o social volume (population) growth  controversial: may view poor as deserving, stereotypical o material density (freq. of social connections) growth characterization  society w/ less labor division  similar lives, people bounded by similarities o or possible poor trapped w/i inherited fail consciousness o repressive laws = norm, individualism = harmful  Modern Forms of Capitalism  industrial society, high division of labor, specialization, people o modern capitalism, managers control means of production depend on others  encourages organic solidarity: o greater individualism, variation, recognition diversity =  ex. 2008 economic crash b/c mismanagement of mangers, not owners necessary o new powerful class outside Marx’s theory: civil servants, judges,  industrialism weakened moral fabric, result: anomie (normlessness) elected officials  these new members similar power to capitalists –ex. judges  Class and Health  Social Class and Crime o power and income inequality increases depression, anxiety, stress o common response to social inequality  stress encourages physical illness: heart attacks o but occurs at all social levels –ex. white collar crime, Bernie Madoff & o homelessness b/c of earlier illness intensifies that illness further Conrad Black o 500 000 Canadian workers experience depression every year  Measuring economic inequality o factors effecting health: job stress, shift work (night workers o Gini Index, 1 = total inequality, 0 = total equality especially depressed), over/under working, o past 20 years Gini rising in all Western industrial societies  white collar more likely to be depressed than blue collar o Karasek and Theorell: workers w/ stressful jobs more prone to heart disease  influenced by economic/social inequality  especially high stress jobs w/ low job control –ex. restaurant servers o Best possible jobs, lets workers control workflow, eliminates alienation Gender Inequality Definitions o Functionalism: gender division of labor more effective/efficient for Sex – The biological characteristics that makes a person male or female; a reproduction & socialization biological fact at birth  mother more suited for raising child b/c early attachments to Gender – Expectations of behavior or appearance that we describe as child (via pregnancy, breastfeeding) masculine or feminine; a set of social expectations  remains home for child caring ∴ does homework as well Sexism – Perceived superiority of one sex (most often men) over the other  efficient reproduction = society survives (usually women) o Critical Theories: capitalists benefits most from gender inequality, Sexual double standard – The expectation that women will feel or behave women = child-bearer, men = bread-earner difference from men in sexual matter. ex. men more sexual freedom  ∴low cost of social reproduction of a workforce, benefit from than women unpaid housework/child raising Glass ceiling – Any sex-based barrier to equal opportunity for hiring and  Marx assume men & women same side, exploited by capitalist, promotion o Symbolic Interactionism: inequalities b/c social differences been Double shift – Heavy daily workloads both at the workplace and at home, symbolized, communicated, negotiated that women are far more likely than men to experience  inequalities “taken for granted” by public Patriarchy Theory – Men are the main and universal cause of women’s  interactionists examine ways gender differences create gender oppression. inequalities –ex. sexual double standard Appearance Norms – Appearance features that approximate the ideal – o Social constructionist approaches: notes gender inequality began to not merely the familiar decline in 60s, 70s w/ women’s movement  more about history of women’s movement  success b/c social Notes protest & birth control & economic downturn after baby boom  Views: forced women into workplace o Feminist:  gender inequality mainly benefit men  patriarchy theory  Gendered socialization  gender roles learned at early age through  gender differences are socially constructed  ∴ gender-based socialization w/i families & schools discrimination, segregation should abolish o parents impose gender roles, were socialized similarly  recently also argue for other deprived groups: racial, ethnic  treat sons/daughters differently, –ex. clothing, toys, colors minorities, LGBT groups  boys/girls discouraged from activities of the other sex, –ex. boys Liberal Radical Anti-racist/Post- != crying, girls != playing rough Modern o children further socialized in cross/same-sex interactions men/women  men/women  criticizes  some cultures expect same-sex family members pass down gender-specific knowledge –ex. father socialize sons to “become essentially same different essentialisms in o want equal  Patriarchy main other feminisms men” rights, suffrage, problem, universal o oppression = o peer (friend) groups usually same-sex; follow reference groups education, pay omale control complex, (trend setters) equity affects men &  peer culture enforce sex-appropriate behavioral norms female sexuality & legislation bar reproduction women o schools socialize students as male or females; hidden curriculum  women from public oneed political o inequalities of encourage gender stereotypes life  unequal opposition, race, class,  elementary/daycare gender used often to organize students opportunity radical gender,  schools encourage boys to be bolder, partake in discussion, discourage girls to do so o problem not action/social sexuality, society structure change intersects =  student pushed into certain courses/fields, (boys  technical; Marxist Socialist unique girls  commercial, artistic, domestic) Women always  Combination of problems for  guidance counselors unlikely to advise boys into nursing, less different prevalent these days exploited class Marxist & radical o inherent w/  capitalism & women o currently: women majority of university graduates, labor market capitalism & patriarchy problems  !∃ single solution participation almost in parity property o inequality: race, for all women  2009 – women most likely social services, education, government services, religion, health need to change social class, gender  men: trades, transport, equipment operators, management, structure, abolish intersection capitalism  abolish capitalism manufacturing, etc. & patriarchy  Mass Media – preserve traditional views, gives youth indirect cross-sex o Violence against women highest in societies that are transitioning experience into equality from patriarchal/religious o popular culture dramatize men/women differences o immigrant communities, women more at risk  –ex. sit-coms show females as competent/savvy, males as goof  Gender & Health o Objectify women, stress youth, beauty  sex objects, –ex. o women & women different lives = healthy effected differently advertisements & pornography o factors in women’s well-being: satisfaction w/ intimate partner & o create expectations for men: economically successful, primary financial security breadwinner  men’s well-being: community & physical environment  work endlessly in well-paying job for family, w/o interruption o unpaid domestic work negative impact women’s well-being, double  however, current ideal male effeminate: smaller build, more shifts emotions  modern new-mothers expected to return to work sooner  Gender & Beauty  greater likelihood of unhappiness, depression, anxiety o appearance norms harsh on women, historically valued for beauty,  Gender & Work youth, fertility o gender visibly influences authority, status, income, power o features reflecting appearance norms admired: prosperous, healthy, distribution youth, slender body, symmetrical facial features  combination of workplace etiquette and gender etiquette  differing w/ norm = poor genes, grooming, lack self-discipline  Canada 60% of women in labor force, 73% men; Scandinavia o people unconcerned w/ appearance criticized, disadvantaged 10% higher  –ex. clothing influences, needed for jobs, receive respect  women less likely in position of authority o since 1950s avg NA women’s body size/shapes deviate from ideal o recently highly educated women & women in labor market increased o ideal women becoming more slender, ideal men more bulked up  however, women mostly educated for female-oriented  ideals very different, virtually unattainable disciplines = jobs w/ lower wages  Gender & Relationships  over represented in “women’s fields” = social work, nursing o 60% Canadian couples breakup at least once  under represented in “men’s fields” = STEM fields o Western world currently highest legal divorce rates ever o earning gap slowly closing, 1980: 0.75  2005: 0.85  Divorce risk = 1/4 – 1/3 over life of a relationship  1998: 49% Canadian female university graduates in high-level o since 1960s, divorce law liberalization, 35-40% divorce rates in many jobs, male = 64% countries  Women in professional occupations increase, 5% - 27%  “family” no guarantee for stable marriage o women only recently earn income  adults/older generation adversely affected o divorce rates vary w/ demography  wealthier more educated less likely than poorer less educated;  live on public pensions/welfare less likely for more religious o fields traditionally male w/ recently surge of women decline in o After relationship breakup women more likely enter poverty prestige & income  women under 40 highest risk of prolonged poverty b/c children  –ex. pharmacy & law  25% women = low income a year after break up, 9% men Men and Women of the Corporation – By: Rosabeth Kanter  Gender Dominance  Barriers women face workplace b/c numerical minority, not sex o Weber: domination = “the probability certain specific commands will  women & men in authority behave “manly”; behave “womanly” be obeyed by a given group” otherwise  weak, unproductive behavior b/c weak position  domination = voluntary compliance/obedience  ∴ structural & situational aspect limit careers  obedience sustained and institutionalized o not b/c opportunities are limited for women b/c sexism  usually belief in legitimacy of the dominant  Tokenism  minorities in workplace face more stress o relations btwn men and women show patterns of dominance, and o more outnumber = more pressure subvert dominance  Counter argument: women’s choice affect opportunity  over time create permanent pattern of dominance o female scientist more likely to value family over career o Weber: 3 types of domination  traditional authority  Gender & Housework  rational-legal authority o recent years women doing less housework, b/c less time at home  charismatic authority o men’s share of domestic labor increased  70%-30% : women-men o Patriarchy as authority  but women mostly responsible for daily work: cooking, cleaning  grant legitimacy to power arrangement when considered valid  men’s share usually less important: yard-work, auto-work  eliminate need for force if subordinates convinced disobedience = abnormal, compliance = normal o w/ children wives usually take child-care reasonability The Sociology of Housework – By: Ann Oakley  sighs of patriarchy = “head of household”  Oakley pioneered view of housework as work  women have legal tools to escape domineering men but lack o drew attention to domestic inequalities  men rarely did economic tools  Gender & Crime housework  researched small sample of working middle-class homemakers o Men far likely to commit crimes: fights, excessive drinking o all women disliked housework despite class o men more likely “innovators” – seek success w/ new anti-social ways  however viewed homemaker as their identity  more likely “rebel” – rejects culture’s goals o Women less likely break social rules  also found “golden nuclear family” idealized o abuse & violence against women various forms: physical, mental,  concluded women disempowered by modern “proper role of women” sexual, financial o society insists on woman as mother, alternatives too expensive  Across all relationships: dating, marriage, etc. o housework oppose self-actualization o claimed: women rarely abuse men, to same severity  however, less men less likely to report abuse  recent research contradict Oakley’s findings The Double Ghetto – By: Pat Armstrong & Hugh Armstrong  Women usually in “pink-collar” work force/ precarious labor market o less secure, less well-paid o Author: work gender segregation socially constructed (gender scripts)  not biological reasons  at home, expected to do unpaid work  Author believes Marxists (Critical) view of gender inequality o women reproduce, nurture next generation of workers o provide unpaid car and support for laborers w/ housework o move in/out workforce as opportunity/needs change  fill reserve army of workers  Also agree w/ Oakley Race & Ethnicity Definitions o Structural Theory: understand economic experiences of racial & Race – a set of people commonly defined as belonging to the same group ethnic minorities by virtue of common visible features such as skin color or facial  People similar to members of society (racially, culturally, etc.) characteristics face easier labor market  better jobs etc. Ethnic group – A set of people commonly defined as belonging to the  Canada: job sorting start in schools  some same group by virtue of a common birthplace, ancestry, or culture encourage/discouraged into certain jobs –ex. women & Racial Variations – Differences in behaviour which some people attribute minorities streamed to secondary labor market, whites into to differences in race primary labor market Racial (ethnic) socialization – The process by which we learn to perceive  immigrants hold lowest jobs despite high foreign credentials and evaluate people according to presumed racial or ethnic  History differences o historically powerful nations claimed morally/culturally superior to Assimilation – The process by which an outsider or immigrant group other nations, misunderstood Darwinism becomes indistinguishably integrated into the dominate host  justified conquest, colonization, exploitation society; similar to acculturation  other reasons: cultural parochialism & nation building Imagined Communities – Social groupings, like races or ethnic groups that o Western superiority stigma remains world-wide: are treated as real because they are widely believes (or imagined)  lighter-skinned, straight hair considered more beautiful to be real o mid-1800s Canadian immigration favored Northern Europeans, Ethnic Enclave – A neighbourhood that is mainly or exclusively populated Protestants by people who belong to the same ethnic group o late-1800s non-whites/Christians imported for cheap labor, not Institutional completeness – The degree to which a community or enclave encouraged to stay has established services aimed at a particular ethnic community  Whites saw Asians threat to white economic welfare often in their traditional language  1885 – 1923 head tax & 1923 – 1947 Chinese Exclusion Act Diaspora – a dispersion of people through migration resulting in the  Modern Immigration establishment and spread of same-ethnicity communities o 1967 points system  eligibility depends on points –ex. age, throughout the world education, work experience, English skills; regardless of Diaspora group – Any ethnic group that has established multiple centres ethnicity/country of origin of immigrant life throughout the world o Immigrants into Canada per Origin: Multiculturalism – A Canadian political and social policy aimed at  Europe: 1950 – 55: 88%  2006: 15.1% promoting ethnic tolerance and ethnic community survival  Asia: 1950 – 55: 3.6%  2006: 50.2%  China = 11.4% of all immigrants, India = 11% Notes o Canada dependent on influx of immigrants for labor b/c low fertility  Views: rates o Functionalism: inequality btwn racial/ethnic groups has social o applicant types: skilled workers, business immigrants, family class, purpose refugees  social inequalities provides incentives; exclusion, prejudice,  skilled workers largest = 51.1%, family 2 largest, refugees 3 rd discrimination encourage ethnic solidarity largest = 11.8% (2007)  ethnic solidarity help adjust new immigrants o 85% immigrants settle in Ontario, BC, Quebec (2006)  ethnic identity provides people w/ roots; dissolution = end  2006 – 50% settled in Ontario ethnic group identity  Immigrants land in cities might migrate into smaller city for jobs o Critical Theory: differentiation, exclusion, institutional racism –ex. Calgary, Ottawa, Victoria etc. benefits more powerful group  Ethnic Communities  majority seeks to dominate minorities –ex. Chinese works o ethnic self-segregation common in Canadian cities imported as cheap labor, later excluded b/c threat to majority’s  Create Chinatown, Little Italy, Greek town etc. economic well-being o immigrants settle together b/c economic & linguistic reasons; adds to o Symbolic Interactionism: focus on ways people construct ethnic ethnic communities differences/racial labels  counters assimilation, obstruct social mixing  differences / labels used to subordinate minority groups o individuals sharing & preserving common characteristics (history,  racial socialization contributes to racial differentiation, origin, culture, belief, norms) make up ethnic communities encourage stereotypes of minorities  ethnic solidarity based on blood/kinship  Durkheim: anything (totem) serve as basis for group solidarity –ex. item of worship, etc.  Prejudice & Discrimination o ethnic communities = imagined communities (Benedict Anderson) o Racial prejudice/discrimination encouraged by:  borders = socially constructed, imagined by group vision  racial socialization  constant awareness of race/ethnicity  survival depends on racial difference & behavior of outsiders   confer economic/social advantages on discriminating groups  community maintains best when endangered “self-love” favor “like us” o ethnic enclaves created out of imagined communities  racial/ethnic minorities blank screens to project fears b/c lack of  attracts most new immigrants understanding  create scapegoats  ethnic enclaves/communities/identity survives best w/ more o encourages inter-ethnic strife, violence institutional completeness  violence against blacks in USA continues o recently, ethnic enclaves rising in Canada  shows multiculturalism  modern examples: Rwanda genocide (1994), Darfur, Palestinians & self-segregation and Israeli o over time ethnic identities tend to weaken b/c immigrants & o Mythologies encourage inequalities descendants (youth) increasingly identify w/ Canadian society  i.e. social differentiation and narratives of blame, stress The Polish Peasant in Europe and America – By: William I. Thomas and subordinate group fundamentally, universally different Florian Znaniecki Social Distance – By: Emory S. Bogardus  Cannot understand problems peasant immigrant face w/o reasons of  measure distance btwn two social groups emigration o distance = participants’ acceptance of another race/ethnicity  Case study: explains immigrants hardship upon arrival and level of acceptable social relationship o mostly didn’t assimilate into American society  1: Close relative by marriage o marginalized, poverty, mental illness, martial conflict, social  2: Close personal friend isolation  3: Neighbor on same street  Notable methodology used in study  4: Co-worker in same occupation The Vertical Mosaic – By: John Porter  5: Citizen in own country  Noted historical link btwn ethnic immigrant origins and current class  6: Temporary visitor in own country  7: someone excluded from own country location  elites mainly White Anglo Saxon Protestant, few French  solve issue, encourage bettering education access for all classes o each group asked same set of questions on various groups, o higher education = opportunity for next generation yields average social distance  3 key findings over multiple studies: o some groups less tolerates than others –ex. Gypsies  Multiculturalism o official policy of Canada  criticize for emphasizing group differences o some groups less tolerant than others –ex. small isolated  difficult to build national identity b/c cultural splits communities w/ traditional religious/cultural beliefs o Aboriginal communities disagree w/ multiculturalism o 2010 Canada generally more tolerant of minorities than 1910  views aboriginals as another minority group  Another measurement of social distance: inter-race marriages o more common in large urban centers & w/ decedents of  doesn’t recognize distinctive status as original settlers o French Canadians, similar concerns of minority status immigrants  views multiculturalism undermine Quebec “nationhood” An American Dilemma: The Negro Problem – By: Karl Gunnar Myrdal  interculturalism promoted instead  tolerance for different  showed racial discrimination/attitudes limited opportunities & cultures but forceful acceptance of Quebec society actions of blacks  Interculturalism integrates all cultures under common language, o white majority felt equality not applicable to blacks discourages ethnic enclaves o b/c assumed black inferiority & historical slave-master French Canada in Transition – By: Everette C. Hughes relationship  Myrdal suggest:  English-French relations troubled since 170s  Hughes studied a traditional mill town, documented conflicts in o 1: expand fed gov’t role in education, housing, income security lifestyles, traditions, btwn ethnic groups  enact racially equal policies  give minorities same  concluded problem = innovative outsiders vs. traditional locals opportunity o 2: migration from rural south to industrial north, higher paying o Modernization force people into mills, urban lifestyle foreign; French workers exploited by English factory owners jobs  Francophone sees problem as racial, not economic  migration occurred in 50s/60s to large industrial cities o Hughes saw problem as work relations. class relations  Importance: saw need to give personal bias in research o Myrdal challenges sociologists to better society’s vulnerable  Notable methodology used in study members  Racialization Orientalism – By: Edward Said o Racialization = differentiate people b/c race unnecessarily  westerns view of Orient: separate, eccentric, backward, different, passive  essentialist notions  or impose racial character/context on a situation o conquerable, inferior party  or perceive world in racial terms –ex. find racial mistreatments o racial mostly social construct  supported by genetic findings o oriental man seen as feminine but strange/dangerous  80% of genetic variability btwn humans can be found in single o oriental women seen passive, exotic population o used as foundations for Western ideologies/policies  i.e. possibly more genetic difference w/i 1 race than btwn 2 o Institutional racism –ex. stopping young black drivers more often  hard to identify/eliminate o Open racism –ex. white supremacy Age Groups Definitions  3. Involvement  activities support society’s conventional Ageism – all types of prejudice or discrimination against members of interest (i.e. no delinquency time) –ex. sports, community society based on an individual’s age, weather old or young service Median Age – The point that divides a population into two groups of  4. Conformity  belief in societal law & enforcers equal size based on age, with half the population above that age o Youth criminal behavior might be response to authority (parents, and half below it educators) & way to integrate w/ peer group Dependency Ratio – The proportion of people who are considered Mean Streets: Youth Crime & Homelessness – By: John Hagan & Bill “dependants” (under 15 or over 65) compared to people 15 to 64 McCarty years who are considered of working age  examined how/why youth left home for streets Gerontology – The scientific study of aging and old age o studied 500 streets kids in Toronto & Vancouver  Street kids often had parental abuse/neglect Notes o live in impoverished neighborhood, parents might unemployed  Views: o schoolwork poor b/c home issues drop out o Functionalism: views society’s strength by weakest members (old),  Can’t meet daily need: food, shelter, clothing  turn to crime constantly replace w/ stronger (young) members) o theft, prostitution  Disengagement theory (Elaine Cumming and William Henry) – o w/o capital, street youth dev. “criminal capital” elderly are weakest members; physical (bones, muscles more  in w/ network of other street youth, promote crimes fragile) & mental decline (cognitive, less efficient worker)   Toronto approach, social welfare  youth hostels provide shelter willing withdraw from society, displaced from powerful,  Vancouver approach, crime/jail  return to home/jail influential positions for societal benefit  Both solution unsuccessful  large portion “revolving door” – btwn  Retirement means to disengage, replaced w/ more abled worker jail & streets  natural & crucial process  Study didn’t recommend policy change o Critical Theory: exclusion of old & young from financial/socially important roles not good for society Centuries of Childhood – By: Philippe Aries  childhood – cultural invention, socially constructed  disagree w/ functionalist view  only few withdraw willingly  Pre-1500s European countries:  retirement rules force most out of workplace o Children w/ poo
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