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Lecture 7: Colonization - Regional and National Inequalities (Points - Chapter 10)  Globalization: a form of international cooperation between territories; a term whose definition is debated by academics and diplomats  Globalization is partly economic and partly technological o Interactions via. communications technology brings people together  Prejudice: prejudgement that people in one part of the world make, about people in another  War crimes have a lasting effect on society and war criminals don’t always get punished  Women especially vulnerable in times of war as they are raped and killed to disorganize and frighten foes  Ever since forming separate territories people have fought and died to protect their territory  Regions: large land areas encompassing portions of a country or several countries; usually share topographical features and economic experiences  Nations: large land areas where people live under the rule of a national government  Empires: sets of nations, regions, and territories controlled by a single ruler Ways of Looking at…Regions, Nations, and Empires  Symbolic interactionism: little to say as topics are macrosociological  Main macrosociological approaches: functionalist and critical theory  Debate between these 2 approaches NOT about hierarchy but about nature of the global system and role of force versus choice in establishing global order Critical Theory  Capitalism (Karl Marx): o Inherently expansionist economic system, always looking for new markets, new, lower-cost labour and resources o Always looking to control and even conquer societies to manipulate their markets, populations, and even government  Governments of leading capitalist nations will occasionally support aggressive economic or military intrusions into foreign countries o Wars, from this angle, are economics at gunpoint  many historical events show this  Capitalism did not create imperialism  Empires existed 1000s of years before in Egypt, Persia, Greece, Rome with imperial armies and colonial wars  Many view globalization as simply American capitalism trying to extend control and wealth o American and Russian intrusion in Middle East seen as seeking to control oil in the name of democracy Functionalism  Modernization approach: spread of Western lifestyles and values and the general desire for Western-style democracy and culture o Local desires of Americanization – increase contact with American media, consumer items, life choices  Desires for Americanization come from inside less-developed country and so no guns and economic threats needed (in comparison to capitalism) Classic Studies: The Modern World-System I: Capitalist Agriculture and Origins of the European World-Economy in the Sixteenth Century (Immanuel Wallerstein) th  Argues that an important social system has developed since 16 century where global linkages are economic and the system is organized on capitalist principles causing worldwide division of labour and a system of stratification th  Before 16 centuries, world economies existed typically in world empires (ex. Roman Empire) but were expensive to maintain, politically and militarily  In 16 century, new world economy emerged based on capitalist mode of production which did not require political or military rule countries came to serve as the core states  Core States: governments of industrialized, rich, powerful, and relatively independent societies; dominant states of the world o most detailed and “modern” division of labour  gave them commercial and manufacturing wealth  Periphery States: governments of less developed, poor, weak societies that are subject to manipulation and control by core states o slavery, feudal relations  Semi-periphery States: governments of industrial or semi-industrial societies that, though prosperous, are economically or politically dependent on core societies (and thus subject to control) o Canada is an example o most common labour control sharecropping (farmers growing crops on other’s land and receives part of the money earned from selling the crops)  WALLERSTEIN divided the world into 3 states: Core, periphery, and semi-periphery states  Systemic relationship among European countries and other core states and periphery states to be endangered when one is nearing bankruptcy (like Greece)  Differentiation between core and periphery states based on type of labour organization o Important in order to assure the flow of surplus that allowed capitalist system to exist America Triangular Trade relations (1500-1850) Africa Manufactured Products (also to rest Europe world)  Emergence of bureaucratic organizations (specialized departments of nonelected officials) in core states allowed core to control and exploit periphery more effectively (another feature of differentiation) o Allowed operation in areas larger than that controlled by any political entity o Overseeing done through bureaucratically organized army and civil service  Wallerstein successful in combining sociology, history, economics, and political science  Criticized for omitting roles of ideas and beliefs of human history  Wallerstein much closer to Marx than Weber  Global capitalism (from this perspective): organizing principle behind the world’s regions, nations, and empires Networks of Dependency  Every region, nation, and empire has its own set of rules and body of laws (political and legal jurisdiction) but it is also within orbit of larger, imperial core states that are pursuing their own interests  Interconnection of regions, nations, and empires creates tension between control within territorial unit and control from core nations outside it  Who prevails when tension escalates to conflict depends on structure of rule o British Empire: uniformity and flexibility created through local versions of British law in periphery o Shorter-lived empires lacked the uniformity and flexibility  Purpose of imperial rule is to enrich core states (esp. capitalists) at the expense of peripheral states  Peripheral states are too weak to resist raw materials, cheap labour, and surplus taken from them  World economy exploits the peripherals states  Semi-peripheral states act as middlemen for core states  more autonomous, independent, and self- controlling  Some believe Ontario and Quebec are, historically, the core states while the other provinces are periphery  Canada has been peripheral and semi-peripheral in British and (later) American Empire  Toronto and Montreal are peripheral/semi-peripheral cities in global network of capital controlled by London and New York  This interdependence is FAR from equal  states have different amounts of power and influence in dealing with each other  Regions, nations, and empires ALL characterized by exchange and domination  Geographic units tied together by large scale flows of people, goods, capital or information become Regions, Nations, Empires  Geographic units that provide other units with capital, manufactured good, and political decisions are Core Units  Recipients of capital, manufactured goods, and political decisions and providers of labour, raw materials, and profits to Core are Periphery Units  News dominated by unequal power and influence: News of core presented in periphery, not the other way though  Imperialism: exercise of political and economic control by one state over the territory of another o Core states often accused of this o Historically, accomplished by military, but Wallerstein argues domination doesn’t require this  Conflicts in network of geographically linked regions likely to arise due to: o Inequalities of power, wealth, and influence resulting in unequal exchanges o Ecological, cultural, social differences  Many bases of differences make it difficult to determine reason for conflict  Wallerstein and Marx o Both trying to build a theory based on historical development driving by relations of inequality  Wallerstein and Weber o Both understand the dangers of oversimplification  Processes of changing from feudalism to capitalism are complex and vary in locales o Interested in stories of how territories gain and manage control over others Differentiating between Nations, Regions, and Empires  ALL GEOGRAPHIC UNITS Empires  Each had different approaches to controlling their colonies o Roman Empire taxed colonies but didn’t interfere with religious and cultural affairs  Allowed for wide period of peace and stability o British Empire meddled in religion, trying to convert people to Christianity  Brought little benefit to Britain Nations  Political units that are smaller than empires o Most national societies are states and vice versa  State and nation do not always coincide though o Canada  Aboriginals traditionalists and Quebec sovereignists demand sovereign rights and even threaten secession (withdrawal) Regions  Often just combinations of political or jurisdictional units  Many regions are geographic, ecological, and economic units  MOST nations and ALL empires span multiple geographic and ecological zones (ex. Canada, US, China, Russia)  MOST regions are ecologically homogenous and common lifestyle and ecology gives rise to economic and cultural communities A Global Economy  Depiction of globalization as a source of control, inequality and conflict is negative  Supports of globalization see it as a mechanism for cooperation  Globalization (from this perspective): development of a single world market and the accompanying trend of increased interdependence among the economies of the world 6 Defining Features of Global Economy 1. Global economic interdependence  Most societies trade goods and services with one another 2. Scientific and Technological Innovation  Development of new technologies to produce goods and services 3. Polycentric Cultures and Polities (particular forms of government)  Many cultures contribute to the formation of a global culture 4. Homogenized Human Ambitions  World culture where values, ambitions, ways of life fuse together/become more similar 5. Nation states are changing  Influence is being lost over local culture and economy 6. Corporate Entities  Multinational corporations (vs. individuals and government) are key actors in global economy  Economic globalization lead to multinational corporations, foreign governments, and international bodies having more influence than government  Non-governmental Organizations (NGOs): legally constituted organizations that are independent of any national government, mechanisms used by nations to solve problems  Multinational corporations and NGOs are having more economic and political influence, thus reducing historical influence of regions, nations, and empires as political actors (who says what)  NGOs provided mechanisms of sharing across regional and cultural lines o Concern over dominance of American culture over others  world being marketed with American consumer brands o May result in strong resentment, anti-Western sentiments that increase conflict and likelihood of war  Supporters claim globalization does not erase traditional cultures nor does it reduce the number of world cultures, but rather they MIX cultures o Example: incorporation of different cuisines into Western tastes (sushi, teriyaki, crêpes) o Provides a basis for cooperation and through greater cultural understanding One World, Many Societies: Adapting for Success on Foreign Shores  As the CEO of a company looking to expand into global marketplace, RESPECT the local culture of the market you want to enter  Ex. German’s treated Walmart greeters as invading their privacy by asking “How are you?” Blurring Social Distances through Technology Telephones  Create and preserve close relations even at a distance o Allowed people to express feelings and opinions in their own voice Email  Similar advantages to telephone  Not as disruptive nor dependent on both people being available at the same time as telephones are  Strictly print medium; requires some computer literacy  Faceless anonymity poses risk of indiscretion, misunderstanding, self-misrepresentation, blunt disclosure  People like to express themselves intemperately and thoughtlessly  Lack of temporal and spatial boundaries associated with telephone and email (and now social networking sites) frees relationships and makes new relationships possible  By increasing national and global communication, they have increased familiarity and the chance of cooperation  MARX: these technologies are instruments of the dominant class Classic Studies: The Manifesto of the Communist Party  Karl Marx born to well-off parents and moved to Paris, where he met Friedrich Engels and they both joined the Communist League and agreed to write the Manifesto of the Communist Party  Marx’s views won him admiration and persecution and he was influential in Communist circles, but he was no political leader, focusing on doing research in British Museum  Friedrich Engels lived with working families to understand their conditions  Similarity in views brought him and Marx together  MARX and ENGELS predict inevitable collapse of capitalism and thus end to social inequality  Show how society splits social classes into 2 opposing classes: bourgeoisie and proletariat  Bourgeoisie: class of modern capitalists, owners of means of social production and employers of wage labour  Proletariat: class of modern wage labourers who, having no means of production of their own, are reduced to selling their labour power in order to live  Predicted that antagonism between 2 classes would lead to downfall of bourgeoisie and end of class conflict  Struggle between these 2 classes is different than historical relations between oppressed and oppressors o Bourgeoisie cannot exist without constantly revolutionizing the instruments of production  relations of production  whole relations of society  Done by expanding and exploiting its empire more efficiently  This polarizes class divisions in new areas or increasingly polarizes already industrialized areas o Worker becomes more and more an attachment to a machine, individual character of work is lost, payment for work is limited to least amount that ensures the worker’s continued existence  Bourgeoisie do not
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