Section 7 (Work)
Chapter 26 – “Suck it Up Buttercup”: A Culture of Acceptable Workplace Violence in
Workplace violence – physical violence as well as psychological injuries,
harassment, verbal abuse, etc.
o Occurs on a daily basis for healthcare workers – patients are violent
o Often goes unpunished
Focus of article – specifically on people working in publically funded
community care organizations for developmentally disabled people.
o Correlates between intensity of violence and the sex, age, job category,
and shifts worked by the victim.
o Result: the more shifts you work, the more likely you are to
experience a severe violent attack.
o Workers encounter violence every day. Becomes a natural part of the
o Managers say that from the beginning, violence was an expected part
of the job. Among them, idea that you’re supposed to suck it up and
take it like a man.
Those that did suck it up end up being promoted.
o Workplace violence a current health and safety problem in
businesses where employees are the victims of verbal and/or physical
harassment from customers and/or clients.
Chapter 27 – “Let’s Be Friends”: Working within an Accountability Circuit
Focuses on eligibility for Medicaid chronic care benefit.
Application process takes a ton of paperwork and effort.
New director tried to change the process to make it more user-friendly.
RESULT: things went more smoothly, and for the most part the new system
Chapter 28 – Profession: A Useful Concept for Sociological Analysis?
Sociological definition of profession occupation with status and privilege.
o Argument is that this definition is increasingly useless.
o Thesis: profession should be defined by the self-governance and
authority they were granted (esp re: training required to enter the
practice) rather than status.
o She reviewed legislation pertaining to several professions and
Professions organized organizational groups with a (somewhat) accepted
claim to legal and/or social status.
Differences between professions and occupations re: legislation
o Professions: Had an established regulatory body, at least partially
composed of practitioners, to govern the profession
Limited the right to practise or to utilize a restricted title to
those with a demonstrated level of competence.
o Occupations: established a system of licensing without creating a
separate regulatory body and/or competency requirements.
Historically in Canada, professions were special status groups demarcated by
their training and education in a specific field, and their moral rectitude.
o Status refers to the standing or position that a person occupies in
the social structure, such as teacher or doctor. It is often combined
with the notion of the social role to produce the idea of a status role.
o Status groups Competitive groups of people who enjoy the same
status and seek to preserve their monopolistic privileges by excluding
their rivals from enjoyment of certain resources.
o Empirical research research that occupies a close relationship to
sensory experience, observation, or experiment.
Chapter 29 – Work Hard, Play Hard?: A Comparison of Male and Female Lawyers’
Time in Paid and Unpaid Work and Participation in Leisure Activities
Hypothesis 1: Greater time spent in paid and unpaid work will be negatively
related to participation in leisure activities.
o Men are more likely to protect their leisure time from family;
women’s leisure time is more often interrupted, intertwined, and
fragmented by their family.
Hypothesis 2: Women will spend more time in household and child care
activities than men, whereas men will spend more time in paid work and
participate in more leisure than women.
Hypothesis 3: Greater time spent in paid and unpaid work will result in a
stronger negative relationship with leisure for women compared with men.
Findings: having young kids or spending more time on housework negatively
impacts women’s time for leisure activities, but has no relationship to men’s.
o Role strain Every role brings with it a number of different partners,
each with their own set of expectations. When these expectations are
in disagreement, sociologists talk of role strain.
o Unpaid work labour – especially care work and domestic work
done by women – that earns no cash payment or wage.
o Leisure time spent not working for pay. The time used for idle,
unpaid, and economically unproductive activities.
Section 10 (Inequality and Stratification)
Chapter 37 – Pay Equity: Yesterday’s Issue? Pay equity equal pay for work of equal value.
Talks about the gender wage gap and how it negatively impacts women. Also
talks about historical attempts to redress it, and possible ways to keep
o Pay equity the term used in North America to refer to equal pay
between men and women.
o Gender wage gap a difference between a man and woman’s fixed
regular payment earned for work or services, typically paid on a daily
or weekly basis.
Chapter 38 – Red Zones, Empty Alleys, and Giant TVs: Low-Income Youths’ Spatial
Accounts of Olympic Host Cities
Paper explores the manner in which low-income youth experience the effects
of spectacle in Vancouver during the 2012 Winter Olympics and right before.
The unequal spatial distributions that become intensified during spectacular
neo-liberal mega-events like the Olympics.
Argues that the Olympics both marginalized street youth and co. by pushing
them into areas where they wouldn’t be seen by affluent tourists, and
allowed them to linger in places they otherwise wouldn’t have been allowed
to be due to public scrutiny on the police and how they treat the street youth.
o Focus groups A qualitative method of data collection that involves
interactive discussion among a small number of people.
o Mega-events high profile, one-time events of a limited duration
hosted by a city that receives global media attention. Mega-events
typically circulate among host cities rather than recurring in the same
city multiple times. The Calgary Stampede, for example, is not a mega-
event. The frequency of a mega-event is often determined by a fixed
schedule, such as the four-year cycle of the Winter and Summer
o Red zone an area that the police have designated as out of bounds
to particular youth who have been banished by police for partaking in
illegitimate (though not always criminal) behaviour.
o Zone of prestige a culturally impressive institution or space that a
city uses to boost its reputation both nationally and globally.
Chapter 39 – Parents and Traffic Safety: Unequal Risks and Responsibilities to and
Paper compares two schools in Vancouver and parents’ concerns about
traffic danger in their kids’ school journey. Explores how lower income and
gender differences influence risk.
Argues that society has taken the responsibility for road accidents and
preventing them away from motorists and has placed it on children and
parents (i.e. pedestrians). Lower income school – parents worry about the trucks that drive on nearby
roads and their speed and lack of attention to traffic signals.
Higher income school – parents worry about other parents trying to drop of
their kids to school and how crazy the school zone gets during drop off and
pick up times.
o Parental traffic safeguarding the ways in which parents protect
their children’s diverse mobilities from the dangers of motorized
traffic in variable social and automobilized environment
o Class The relative location of a person or group within a larger
society, based on wealth, power, prestige, or other valued resources.
o Fieldwork Data collection for any study that involves talking to
people or asking them questions about their activities and views,
sometimes including attempts at systematic observation of their
behaviour. Fieldwork ranges from large-scale survey interviewing by
hundreds of professional interviewers to the lone researcher
recording information collected through participant observation in a
small-scale case study.
Chapter 40 – Municipal Malaise: Neo-Liberal Urbanism in Canada
Neo-liberal urbanism a range of uneven processes unfolding in the urban
environments in which we live and work. E.g. Privatization, restructuring,
and elimination of public goods and municipal services, cutbacks and the like
to public services, etc.
Federal and provincial gov’ts try to limit their spending and balance their
budgets by pushing service providing onto municipal governments, despite
the fact that municipalities can’t afford to provide these services (and they
have much fewer means of gaining income – including taxes).
As a result, municipalities offload their costs onto the workers of the service
sector – e.g. by slashing pension plans, decreasing paid leave times,
contracting out to the private sector, etc. Simultaneously, they fight a PR
battle where the workers are made out to be the Big Bad.
Need to start to challenge the “common sense” of neo-liberal urbanism and
move towards a more socialist public sector. Stop demonizing unions and
those who work in the public sector, and start placing greater responsibility
on businesses and the like to provide properly for people.
o Neo-liberal urbanism a range of uneven processes unfolding in the
urban environment in which we live and work.
Reading Sociology – Chapter 11, Sex and Gender
Gold Diggers and Moms: Representation of Women’s Identities in Fort McMurray in
Chatelaine (Sara O’Shaughnessy) Examines how population changes in Fort McMurray (influx of working-class
men with families in other towns) changed media accounts of gender
relations, etc. in the town.
Author uses feminist post-structuralist discourse analysis to look at the
gendered images in the Chatelaine article that explored this. Also, she
o Finds that the article presents Fort McMurray as a macho-man
frontiers town. Men come here to strike it rich, and women can only
profit from the boomtown through their heterosexual relations with
o Lack of community feeling in the town is deflected from the men and
placed on the women – the “hookers” and others, who play a
“necessary” role in providing services for the lonely and hard-working
men of the town.
o “Women are, in effect, the antithesis to the traits valued in frontier
masculinity” – men are rugged, disaffected, and individualistic, but
also deeply moral and honest, while women are dependent and
incapable of physical labour.
o Role of women is one of two: the “good woman” who sacrifices her life
and interests in supporting the man’s interests, and the “bad woman”
who is whore-ish, individualistic, and ambitious.
o “Bad women” play up their sexuality, while “good women” seem
entirely devoid of sexuality or economic ambition.
o Reinforcement of the primacy of the masculine protagonist in the
town through media’s portrayal of the town
o Frontier masculinity is the primary organizing frame through which
gender relations and identities in the community are constructed and
represented to the outside world.
o Post-structuralism A doctrine that rejects structuralism’s claims to
objectivity and emphasizes the plurality of meaning.
o Gold-diggers A term originally applied to a gold miner. With the
rise of pop culture, it has been applied to women who are perceived to
associate with or marry a rich man in order to get valuables from him
through gifts or a divorce settlement.
Hyperheterosexualization, Masculinity, and HIV/AIDS Challenges in the Caribbean
Objective: to understand how cultural ideas of manhood and masculinity
affected HIV/AIDS education in the Caribbean (esp Trinidad and Tobago).
Also wanted to untangle the multi-layered, complex historical social and
political cannons through which identification/gay profiling, prejudice,
homophobia, and power are produced, performed, and understood.
o Power relations between black gay men in a hyper-masculine, hyper-
sexualized culture. Methodology: qualitative and multi-sited approaches that applied different
methodological tools, discourse analysis, participant observation, and
Live in a homophobic and hetero-patriarchal society.
o RESULT: men lie about having HIV/AIDS to keep their partners; not
seen as immoral. Necessary for survival and acceptance.
o Homosexuality is a criminal offence, highly stigmatized, and perceived
as delinquent behaviour. RESULT: HIV/AIDS is becoming rampant.
Hiding homosexuality is the way to achieving acceptance and love.
o Power plays an important role in the social construction of
masculinity. Wealthy men often subjugate their poor partners to
maintain power in the relationship.
o Older man in the relationship feminizes the younger man and thus
maintains a “heterosexual” relationship. Unsafe sex is common,
because the younger men are afraid of losing the older, more
financially secure man who is providing for them. Older men are also
usually the penetrators.
o Penetration as power and maintenance of masculinity. All Caribbean
men (gay or straight) see sexual relations as opportunities to
demonstrate hyper-masculinity, since effeminacy is shunned and
ridiculed. This means taking risks, to show masculine courage.
o The more dangerous the sex, the more you can get paid for it. Further,
leaving prostitution is difficult – death threats or threats of police
from pimps keep men from leaving. Since homosexuality is illegal,
men practice it in unsafe public places. Further makes sex unsafe.
The risks of acquiring HIV/AIDS are driven upward by a lack of legal and
sexual protection, rampant homophobia, and an openness to having multiple
partners (to maximise earnings). RESULT: serious health care problem for
the men and for the society as a whole.
Conclusion: must study HIV/AIDS spread more in this context. Also,
homosexuality needs to be legalized and the gender roles challenged.
o Homophobia The psychological fear of homosexuality
o Field observation A formal experiment conducted outside the
laboratory, in a natural setting.
o Heterosexualization The process in which individuals are socially
conditioned to adopt heterosexual practices by ignoring and
suppressing their sexual feelings toward the same sex and then using
these suppressed emotions toward the opposite gender.
Hyperheterosexualization is an excess of this.
Contested Imaginaries: Reading Muslim Women and Muslim Women Reading Back:
Transnational Feminist Reading Practices, Pedagogy, and Ethical Concerns (Lisa
This article is part of a larger project of both critically examining the ways of
these forms of representation (examining lives of Muslim women – feminist, Orientalist, colonialist, etc.) are taken up in various educational sites and
exploring pedagogies focused on the politics and ethics of reading.
Argues that since 9/11, much of scholarship has focused on a fetish to
“expose” Muslim women and free them from supposed tyranny.
o Imperial feminism – standpoint which claims solidarity with Third
World women and women of colour, but in actuality contributes to the
stereotyping of Third World cultures as “barbaric” and “uncivilized.”
o Leads to western feminists “rescuing the other”
o The Western/Orientalist construction of Muslim women, therefore,
with the help of dubious, yet first-hand, corroboration from such
“native informants,” helps maintain a certain academic currency for
these archetypes as central narratives, despite the fact that they
present distorted and static images that serve to essentialize Muslim
women as abjectly different.
o RESULT: Muslim women have been viewed and consumed with a
mixture of imperial fascination and ethnocentric pity.
What she suggests: an anti-colonial pedagogy grounded in a close attention
to the political, aesthetic, and psychic dynamics of reception and response.
o War on terror An operation initiated by the US government under
Bush, using legal, military, personal, and political actions to limit the
spread of terrorism after 9/11.
o Orientalist A term for the West’s interest in, and sometimes
imitation of, Eastern (Oriental) languages, cultures, and arts during
the eighteenth, nineteenth, and twentieth centuries.
o Pedagogy the science or art of teaching.
Spinsters and Suspects: Gender and Moral Citizenship in Poison Pen Mystery Novels
(Kathy Bischoping and Riley Olstead)
They hone in on works in which anonymous communication is a central plot
device, a lens allowing them to focus on the characters’ questions about who
constitutes their community and how moral bonds can be sustained.
o Use a feminist and Durkheim (social contract) approach to media.
o Their analysis seeks evidence of how moral bonds in modern
communities are sustained through shared civic identification as
members of an imagined community.
Three main types of women in detective novels:
o Spinster suspect – found in village settings of the early modern period
o Urban Victim – lives in the city in modern and late modern period.
o Self-Made Subject – ditto.
o Archetype of the bored and vindictive old spinster. Conflation of
women and the countryside/nature. Passive aggressiveness of the
anonymous letters related to women.
o Equate the masculine with the urban, the scientific, and the rational.
Capacity to dominate nature. Mystery novels employ a variety of interpretive structures, routinely
positioning women – like rural spinsters – as inimical to the moral order.
Struck by the regularity of such depictions and the way in which characters
in mysteries use “women as a social problem” as a category through which
the general social group solidifies its social identity.
o Masculinity The characteristics belonging to, and considered
appropriate to, the male sex
o Femininity The characteristics belonging to, and considered
appropriate to, the female sex.
Fleshy Histories: Fatness, Sex/Gender, and the Medicalized Body in the Nineteenth
Century (Kristen A. Hardy)
Modern biomedicine has positioned fatness as something inherently bad that
needs to be treated immediately. Scholars have explored how the science
behind these views is often flawed and partisan.
The specialized terminology of contemporary medicine (e.g. morbid obesity)
created to cast particular bodies as fundamentally abnormal by virtue of
their weight, size, and/or shape, speaks to the cultural importance attached
to measuring and quantifying the degree of otherness of certain bodies.
Author focuses on the 19 century to consider how particular historical
shifts in epistemology, medicine, and socio-political thought have
participated in casting certain sized and weighted bodies as deviant, not
simply in relation to an abstract model of “health”, but in specific, gendered
Rise of the bourgeoisie led to the development of the body as a project; a
cultivated physique became an essential aid to moral and mental discipline.
This laid fertile ground for negative readings of the fat bodies as insufficiently
controlled, unsuitably self-indulgent, and often inappropriately gendered (i.e.
Fat tissue and its distribution within individual bodies and among human
populations increasingly emerged in the 19 century as a crucial component
of the enactment of sexed bodies and gendered subjectivities.
o Obesity The condition of being overweight, generally defined as
weighing 20% or more above the recommended norm for the
person’s sex, height, and build. People who are overweight are at
increased risk of disease and have a shorter life expectancy than those
of normal weight.
Chapter 12 – Immigration, Race, and Ethnicity
Bridging Understandings: Anishinaabe and White Perspectives on the Residential
School Apology and Prospects for Reconciliation (Jeffrey S. Denis) Interviewed both white and aboriginal people (including those who were
part of the residential school system) to learn their views on Stephen
o Two groups view it in very different ways.
o Ultimately, the dominant white frame reflects a Canadian style of
laissez-faire or colour blind racism – an ideology that justifies racial
inequality, avoids responsibility, and defends dominant group
interests without sounding racist.
The residential school issue is not about money from the perspective of most
Aboriginals, bur rather seeking recognition for wrongdoing,
acknowledgement of guilt and acceptance of responsibility, healing
emotional and spiritual wounds, and working toward reconciliation.
Finds that whites tend to want to just accept that it happened and move on,
while Aboriginals want follow-ups on the apology – helping build
infrastructure, language schools, etc. – generally rebuilding what the
residential schools sought to destroy.
Aboriginals and whites tend to view residential school issues through
o Residential school Native residential schooling, a project intended
to assimilate Aboriginals into Euro-Canadian society and Christianity,
became part of Canada’s history starting in the 1840s. The use of
Native languages – known colloquially as “talking Indian” – was
vigorously discouraged. The schools were run by churches of various
denominations, and preaching frequently disparaged Aboriginal
spirituality, calling it devil worship. Students were subjected to the
denigration of Aboriginal identity and the promotion of Euro-
Canadian values and practices.
o Assimilation Refers to the decline of an ethnic distinction and its
corollary, cultural and social differences. Decline in this context means
that a distinction attenuates in salience – that the occurrences for
which it is relevant diminish in number and contract to fewer and
fewer domains of social life.
o Intergenerational Existing or occurring between or across different
generations of people.
The Informal Settlement Sector: Broadening the Lens to Understand Newcomer
Integration in Hamilton. (William Shaffir and Vic Satzewich)
Interested in understanding how newcomers go about trying to solve the
challenges they face when it comes to settlement and integration through
their participation in religious organizations and ethnically specific
o Method: 30 interviews with people connected with the immigration
field to Hamilton. Immigrants, people who work with immigrants, and
leaders of churches and ethnic community associations.
Two main questions: o What role do religious institutions and ethno-cultural associations
play in helping newcomers adjust and integrate into Hamilton society?
o What is the relationship between the formal settlement sector and
religious institutions and ethno-cultural associations in the city?
Settlement in their opinion – process through which newcomers interact
with a variety of individuals and both formal and informal organizations in
order to live and work in a new land.
Newcomers have agency: i.e. the ability to act and react, and to change their
circumstances and surroundings.
Focus is on the ways that faith organizations and ethno-cultural associations
(two sets of institutions in the informal settlement sector) help newcomers
solve various settlement issues.
Faith based institutions are valued for the spiritual guidance they offer, while
providing an anchor enabling newcomers to better position themselves to
meet their new challenges.
o They are important for meeting immigrants’ emotional needs.
Ethno-cultural organizations are promoting integration rather than acting as
barriers to integration.
o Also assist with employment
Immigrant newcomers display resourcefulness, ambition, and creativity as
they interact with outside officials and co-ethnics to pave a path for
themselves. Especially evident in places of worship and ethno-cultural
o Settlement the process through which immigrants enter, adjust to,
and function within their new host environment.
The New Relationship between the Social Sciences and the Indigenous Peoples of
Canada (Cora J. Voyageur)
Paper highlights some of the changes that can help set the stage for a new
relationship between First Nations people and the social science community.
o FN population is increasing. The population is also getting more post-
secondary education than before.
o More businesses owned by FN and banks for them. Non-FN are now
interested in investing in FN businesses because they’ve proven
o FN are getting elected into political roles. Argues that self-government
is the way to go, since Canada isn’t really doing anything to help their
cause or further their interest.
o Legal changes giving FN more rights/getting their rights back. o Argues that social scientists must adjust the lens through which they
view and represent FN people in their curriculum, research,
publications, and dissemination of data.
o Must add info on FN to the post-secondary curriculum and update it
o Academics who wish to conduct research in the first nations
community must invest time, money, and energy to build a
relationship with the community. Research must be conducted with
the community, and not just on it.
Publishing and Dissemination of Data
o Publications need to be accessible and understandable by FN.
o Indigenous scholars must continue to research and publish their
findings to help set the tone of the academic discourse.
o First Nations A term of ethnicity referring to the Aboriginal peoples
in Canada who are neither Inuit nor Metis.
Changing Canadian Immigration and Foreign Worker Programs: Implications for
Social Cohesion (Alan Simmons)
Paper examines new developments in Canada’s welcome to foreigners, the
nation-building ideology that shapes these developments, and how the
developments impact social cohesion.
Three periods of policy development:
o 1960s and on
1962 – new method of selecting immigrants. Points system.
Dependent parents and others can be sponsored to come to
Canada. Refugees also allowed. Foreign worker programs.
Visas for foreign students.
Official policy discourse – Canada is a multicultural country in
which all national ethnic and religious backgrounds are
Change in selection criteria to privilege the immigration of very
highly educated workers.
o 2005 and on
More and more foreign workers are admitted
Widening spread in the skill levels of foreign workers
Canadian companies can now hire from outside Canada
Skilled workers can work in Canada for a period of time and
then can apply for permanent residence. Ditto students.
Canada’s recent immigration and foreign workers policies generate large
negative implications for social cohesion.
o Immigrants aren’t doing as well in the job market as was hoped.
o Immigrants are becoming marginalized due to low wages o Canada’s immigration policy is increasingly being dictated by
companies, who want specific types of workers for their short-term
o Foreign workers aren’t protected by the same labour laws as
o Point system A system used in the immigration process for
distributing and allocating resources, or for ranking or evaluating
candidates on the basis of points allocated or accumulated
o Refugees A person who has been forced to leave his or her native
country in order to escape war, persecution, or natural disaster.
o Social cohesion a condition of connectedness, unity, cooperation,
and trust among people in a society.
Voting Across Immigrant Generations (Monica Boyd and Emily Laxer)
Voting = an important indicator of political participation. Also, political
participation is widely considered a crucial mechanism in securing
immigrants’ economic, social, and political foothold in the host society.
Point: want to know if immigrant offspring participate more, or less, in
politics compared with immigrants who arrived in adulthood or compared to
those whose ancestors have been in Canada for generations. Answer this by
looking at generational differences in voting.