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Section 7 (Work) Chapter 26 – “Suck it Up Buttercup”: A Culture of Acceptable Workplace Violence in Group Homes  Workplace violence – physical violence as well as psychological injuries, harassment, verbal abuse, etc. o Occurs on a daily basis for healthcare workers – patients are violent towards providers. o Often goes unpunished  Focus of article – specifically on people working in publically funded community care organizations for developmentally disabled people. o Correlates between intensity of violence and the sex, age, job category, and shifts worked by the victim. o Result: the more shifts you work, the more likely you are to experience a severe violent attack. o Workers encounter violence every day. Becomes a natural part of the work day. o Managers say that from the beginning, violence was an expected part of the job. Among them, idea that you’re supposed to suck it up and take it like a man.  Those that did suck it up end up being promoted.  Keywords: o Workplace violence  a current health and safety problem in businesses where employees are the victims of verbal and/or physical harassment from customers and/or clients. Chapter 27 – “Let’s Be Friends”: Working within an Accountability Circuit  Focuses on eligibility for Medicaid chronic care benefit.  Application process takes a ton of paperwork and effort.  New director tried to change the process to make it more user-friendly.  RESULT: things went more smoothly, and for the most part the new system worked. Chapter 28 – Profession: A Useful Concept for Sociological Analysis?  Sociological definition of profession  occupation with status and privilege. o Argument is that this definition is increasingly useless. o Thesis: profession should be defined by the self-governance and authority they were granted (esp re: training required to enter the practice) rather than status. o She reviewed legislation pertaining to several professions and occupations.  Professions  organized organizational groups with a (somewhat) accepted claim to legal and/or social status.  Differences between professions and occupations re: legislation o Professions:  Had an established regulatory body, at least partially composed of practitioners, to govern the profession  Limited the right to practise or to utilize a restricted title to those with a demonstrated level of competence. o Occupations: established a system of licensing without creating a separate regulatory body and/or competency requirements.  Historically in Canada, professions were special status groups demarcated by their training and education in a specific field, and their moral rectitude.  Keywords: o Status  refers to the standing or position that a person occupies in the social structure, such as teacher or doctor. It is often combined with the notion of the social role to produce the idea of a status role. o Status groups  Competitive groups of people who enjoy the same status and seek to preserve their monopolistic privileges by excluding their rivals from enjoyment of certain resources. o Empirical research  research that occupies a close relationship to sensory experience, observation, or experiment. Chapter 29 – Work Hard, Play Hard?: A Comparison of Male and Female Lawyers’ Time in Paid and Unpaid Work and Participation in Leisure Activities  Hypothesis 1: Greater time spent in paid and unpaid work will be negatively related to participation in leisure activities. o Men are more likely to protect their leisure time from family; women’s leisure time is more often interrupted, intertwined, and fragmented by their family.  Hypothesis 2: Women will spend more time in household and child care activities than men, whereas men will spend more time in paid work and participate in more leisure than women.  Hypothesis 3: Greater time spent in paid and unpaid work will result in a stronger negative relationship with leisure for women compared with men.  Findings: having young kids or spending more time on housework negatively impacts women’s time for leisure activities, but has no relationship to men’s.  Keywords o Role strain  Every role brings with it a number of different partners, each with their own set of expectations. When these expectations are in disagreement, sociologists talk of role strain. o Unpaid work  labour – especially care work and domestic work done by women – that earns no cash payment or wage. o Leisure  time spent not working for pay. The time used for idle, unpaid, and economically unproductive activities. Section 10 (Inequality and Stratification) Chapter 37 – Pay Equity: Yesterday’s Issue?  Pay equity  equal pay for work of equal value.  Talks about the gender wage gap and how it negatively impacts women. Also talks about historical attempts to redress it, and possible ways to keep addressing it.  Keywords o Pay equity  the term used in North America to refer to equal pay between men and women. o Gender wage gap  a difference between a man and woman’s fixed regular payment earned for work or services, typically paid on a daily or weekly basis. Chapter 38 – Red Zones, Empty Alleys, and Giant TVs: Low-Income Youths’ Spatial Accounts of Olympic Host Cities  Paper explores the manner in which low-income youth experience the effects of spectacle in Vancouver during the 2012 Winter Olympics and right before. The unequal spatial distributions that become intensified during spectacular neo-liberal mega-events like the Olympics.  Argues that the Olympics both marginalized street youth and co. by pushing them into areas where they wouldn’t be seen by affluent tourists, and allowed them to linger in places they otherwise wouldn’t have been allowed to be due to public scrutiny on the police and how they treat the street youth.  Keywords o Focus groups  A qualitative method of data collection that involves interactive discussion among a small number of people. o Mega-events  high profile, one-time events of a limited duration hosted by a city that receives global media attention. Mega-events typically circulate among host cities rather than recurring in the same city multiple times. The Calgary Stampede, for example, is not a mega- event. The frequency of a mega-event is often determined by a fixed schedule, such as the four-year cycle of the Winter and Summer Olympic games. o Red zone  an area that the police have designated as out of bounds to particular youth who have been banished by police for partaking in illegitimate (though not always criminal) behaviour. o Zone of prestige  a culturally impressive institution or space that a city uses to boost its reputation both nationally and globally. Chapter 39 – Parents and Traffic Safety: Unequal Risks and Responsibilities to and from School  Paper compares two schools in Vancouver and parents’ concerns about traffic danger in their kids’ school journey. Explores how lower income and gender differences influence risk.  Argues that society has taken the responsibility for road accidents and preventing them away from motorists and has placed it on children and parents (i.e. pedestrians).  Lower income school – parents worry about the trucks that drive on nearby roads and their speed and lack of attention to traffic signals.  Higher income school – parents worry about other parents trying to drop of their kids to school and how crazy the school zone gets during drop off and pick up times.  Keywords o Parental traffic safeguarding  the ways in which parents protect their children’s diverse mobilities from the dangers of motorized traffic in variable social and automobilized environment o Class  The relative location of a person or group within a larger society, based on wealth, power, prestige, or other valued resources. o Fieldwork  Data collection for any study that involves talking to people or asking them questions about their activities and views, sometimes including attempts at systematic observation of their behaviour. Fieldwork ranges from large-scale survey interviewing by hundreds of professional interviewers to the lone researcher recording information collected through participant observation in a small-scale case study. Chapter 40 – Municipal Malaise: Neo-Liberal Urbanism in Canada  Neo-liberal urbanism  a range of uneven processes unfolding in the urban environments in which we live and work. E.g. Privatization, restructuring, and elimination of public goods and municipal services, cutbacks and the like to public services, etc.  Federal and provincial gov’ts try to limit their spending and balance their budgets by pushing service providing onto municipal governments, despite the fact that municipalities can’t afford to provide these services (and they have much fewer means of gaining income – including taxes).  As a result, municipalities offload their costs onto the workers of the service sector – e.g. by slashing pension plans, decreasing paid leave times, contracting out to the private sector, etc. Simultaneously, they fight a PR battle where the workers are made out to be the Big Bad.  Need to start to challenge the “common sense” of neo-liberal urbanism and move towards a more socialist public sector. Stop demonizing unions and those who work in the public sector, and start placing greater responsibility on businesses and the like to provide properly for people.  Keywords o Neo-liberal urbanism  a range of uneven processes unfolding in the urban environment in which we live and work. Reading Sociology – Chapter 11, Sex and Gender Gold Diggers and Moms: Representation of Women’s Identities in Fort McMurray in Chatelaine (Sara O’Shaughnessy)  Examines how population changes in Fort McMurray (influx of working-class men with families in other towns) changed media accounts of gender relations, etc. in the town.  Author uses feminist post-structuralist discourse analysis to look at the gendered images in the Chatelaine article that explored this. Also, she interviewed people. o Finds that the article presents Fort McMurray as a macho-man frontiers town. Men come here to strike it rich, and women can only profit from the boomtown through their heterosexual relations with the men. o Lack of community feeling in the town is deflected from the men and placed on the women – the “hookers” and others, who play a “necessary” role in providing services for the lonely and hard-working men of the town. o “Women are, in effect, the antithesis to the traits valued in frontier masculinity” – men are rugged, disaffected, and individualistic, but also deeply moral and honest, while women are dependent and incapable of physical labour. o Role of women is one of two: the “good woman” who sacrifices her life and interests in supporting the man’s interests, and the “bad woman” who is whore-ish, individualistic, and ambitious. o “Bad women” play up their sexuality, while “good women” seem entirely devoid of sexuality or economic ambition. o Reinforcement of the primacy of the masculine protagonist in the town through media’s portrayal of the town o Frontier masculinity is the primary organizing frame through which gender relations and identities in the community are constructed and represented to the outside world.  Key words o Post-structuralism  A doctrine that rejects structuralism’s claims to objectivity and emphasizes the plurality of meaning. o Gold-diggers  A term originally applied to a gold miner. With the rise of pop culture, it has been applied to women who are perceived to associate with or marry a rich man in order to get valuables from him through gifts or a divorce settlement. Hyperheterosexualization, Masculinity, and HIV/AIDS Challenges in the Caribbean (Wesley Crichlow)  Objective: to understand how cultural ideas of manhood and masculinity affected HIV/AIDS education in the Caribbean (esp Trinidad and Tobago). Also wanted to untangle the multi-layered, complex historical social and political cannons through which identification/gay profiling, prejudice, homophobia, and power are produced, performed, and understood. o Power relations between black gay men in a hyper-masculine, hyper- sexualized culture.  Methodology: qualitative and multi-sited approaches that applied different methodological tools, discourse analysis, participant observation, and interviews.  Live in a homophobic and hetero-patriarchal society. o RESULT: men lie about having HIV/AIDS to keep their partners; not seen as immoral. Necessary for survival and acceptance. o Homosexuality is a criminal offence, highly stigmatized, and perceived as delinquent behaviour. RESULT: HIV/AIDS is becoming rampant. Hiding homosexuality is the way to achieving acceptance and love. o Power plays an important role in the social construction of masculinity. Wealthy men often subjugate their poor partners to maintain power in the relationship. o Older man in the relationship feminizes the younger man and thus maintains a “heterosexual” relationship. Unsafe sex is common, because the younger men are afraid of losing the older, more financially secure man who is providing for them. Older men are also usually the penetrators. o Penetration as power and maintenance of masculinity. All Caribbean men (gay or straight) see sexual relations as opportunities to demonstrate hyper-masculinity, since effeminacy is shunned and ridiculed. This means taking risks, to show masculine courage. o The more dangerous the sex, the more you can get paid for it. Further, leaving prostitution is difficult – death threats or threats of police from pimps keep men from leaving. Since homosexuality is illegal, men practice it in unsafe public places. Further makes sex unsafe.  The risks of acquiring HIV/AIDS are driven upward by a lack of legal and sexual protection, rampant homophobia, and an openness to having multiple partners (to maximise earnings). RESULT: serious health care problem for the men and for the society as a whole.  Conclusion: must study HIV/AIDS spread more in this context. Also, homosexuality needs to be legalized and the gender roles challenged.  Key words o Homophobia The psychological fear of homosexuality o Field observation A formal experiment conducted outside the laboratory, in a natural setting. o Heterosexualization  The process in which individuals are socially conditioned to adopt heterosexual practices by ignoring and suppressing their sexual feelings toward the same sex and then using these suppressed emotions toward the opposite gender. Hyperheterosexualization is an excess of this. Contested Imaginaries: Reading Muslim Women and Muslim Women Reading Back: Transnational Feminist Reading Practices, Pedagogy, and Ethical Concerns (Lisa Taylor)  This article is part of a larger project of both critically examining the ways of these forms of representation (examining lives of Muslim women – feminist, Orientalist, colonialist, etc.) are taken up in various educational sites and exploring pedagogies focused on the politics and ethics of reading.  Argues that since 9/11, much of scholarship has focused on a fetish to “expose” Muslim women and free them from supposed tyranny. o Imperial feminism – standpoint which claims solidarity with Third World women and women of colour, but in actuality contributes to the stereotyping of Third World cultures as “barbaric” and “uncivilized.” o Leads to western feminists “rescuing the other” o The Western/Orientalist construction of Muslim women, therefore, with the help of dubious, yet first-hand, corroboration from such “native informants,” helps maintain a certain academic currency for these archetypes as central narratives, despite the fact that they present distorted and static images that serve to essentialize Muslim women as abjectly different. o RESULT: Muslim women have been viewed and consumed with a mixture of imperial fascination and ethnocentric pity.  What she suggests: an anti-colonial pedagogy grounded in a close attention to the political, aesthetic, and psychic dynamics of reception and response.  Key words o War on terror An operation initiated by the US government under Bush, using legal, military, personal, and political actions to limit the spread of terrorism after 9/11. o Orientalist  A term for the West’s interest in, and sometimes imitation of, Eastern (Oriental) languages, cultures, and arts during the eighteenth, nineteenth, and twentieth centuries. o Pedagogy the science or art of teaching. Spinsters and Suspects: Gender and Moral Citizenship in Poison Pen Mystery Novels (Kathy Bischoping and Riley Olstead)  They hone in on works in which anonymous communication is a central plot device, a lens allowing them to focus on the characters’ questions about who constitutes their community and how moral bonds can be sustained. o Use a feminist and Durkheim (social contract) approach to media. o Their analysis seeks evidence of how moral bonds in modern communities are sustained through shared civic identification as members of an imagined community.  Three main types of women in detective novels: o Spinster suspect – found in village settings of the early modern period o Urban Victim – lives in the city in modern and late modern period. o Self-Made Subject – ditto.  Spinster suspect o Archetype of the bored and vindictive old spinster. Conflation of women and the countryside/nature. Passive aggressiveness of the anonymous letters related to women. o Equate the masculine with the urban, the scientific, and the rational. Capacity to dominate nature.  Mystery novels employ a variety of interpretive structures, routinely positioning women – like rural spinsters – as inimical to the moral order. Struck by the regularity of such depictions and the way in which characters in mysteries use “women as a social problem” as a category through which the general social group solidifies its social identity.  Key words o Masculinity The characteristics belonging to, and considered appropriate to, the male sex o Femininity  The characteristics belonging to, and considered appropriate to, the female sex. Fleshy Histories: Fatness, Sex/Gender, and the Medicalized Body in the Nineteenth Century (Kristen A. Hardy)  Modern biomedicine has positioned fatness as something inherently bad that needs to be treated immediately. Scholars have explored how the science behind these views is often flawed and partisan.  The specialized terminology of contemporary medicine (e.g. morbid obesity) created to cast particular bodies as fundamentally abnormal by virtue of their weight, size, and/or shape, speaks to the cultural importance attached to measuring and quantifying the degree of otherness of certain bodies. th  Author focuses on the 19 century to consider how particular historical shifts in epistemology, medicine, and socio-political thought have participated in casting certain sized and weighted bodies as deviant, not simply in relation to an abstract model of “health”, but in specific, gendered ways.  Rise of the bourgeoisie led to the development of the body as a project; a cultivated physique became an essential aid to moral and mental discipline. This laid fertile ground for negative readings of the fat bodies as insufficiently controlled, unsuitably self-indulgent, and often inappropriately gendered (i.e. effeminate men).  Fat tissue and its distribution within individual bodies and among human th populations increasingly emerged in the 19 century as a crucial component of the enactment of sexed bodies and gendered subjectivities.  Key words o Obesity  The condition of being overweight, generally defined as weighing 20% or more above the recommended norm for the person’s sex, height, and build. People who are overweight are at increased risk of disease and have a shorter life expectancy than those of normal weight. Chapter 12 – Immigration, Race, and Ethnicity Bridging Understandings: Anishinaabe and White Perspectives on the Residential School Apology and Prospects for Reconciliation (Jeffrey S. Denis)  Interviewed both white and aboriginal people (including those who were part of the residential school system) to learn their views on Stephen Harper’s apology. o Two groups view it in very different ways. o Ultimately, the dominant white frame reflects a Canadian style of laissez-faire or colour blind racism – an ideology that justifies racial inequality, avoids responsibility, and defends dominant group interests without sounding racist.  The residential school issue is not about money from the perspective of most Aboriginals, bur rather seeking recognition for wrongdoing, acknowledgement of guilt and acceptance of responsibility, healing emotional and spiritual wounds, and working toward reconciliation.  Finds that whites tend to want to just accept that it happened and move on, while Aboriginals want follow-ups on the apology – helping build infrastructure, language schools, etc. – generally rebuilding what the residential schools sought to destroy.  Aboriginals and whites tend to view residential school issues through incompatible frames.  Key words: o Residential school Native residential schooling, a project intended to assimilate Aboriginals into Euro-Canadian society and Christianity, became part of Canada’s history starting in the 1840s. The use of Native languages – known colloquially as “talking Indian” – was vigorously discouraged. The schools were run by churches of various denominations, and preaching frequently disparaged Aboriginal spirituality, calling it devil worship. Students were subjected to the denigration of Aboriginal identity and the promotion of Euro- Canadian values and practices. o Assimilation  Refers to the decline of an ethnic distinction and its corollary, cultural and social differences. Decline in this context means that a distinction attenuates in salience – that the occurrences for which it is relevant diminish in number and contract to fewer and fewer domains of social life. o Intergenerational  Existing or occurring between or across different generations of people. The Informal Settlement Sector: Broadening the Lens to Understand Newcomer Integration in Hamilton. (William Shaffir and Vic Satzewich)  Interested in understanding how newcomers go about trying to solve the challenges they face when it comes to settlement and integration through their participation in religious organizations and ethnically specific associations. o Method: 30 interviews with people connected with the immigration field to Hamilton. Immigrants, people who work with immigrants, and leaders of churches and ethnic community associations.  Two main questions: o What role do religious institutions and ethno-cultural associations play in helping newcomers adjust and integrate into Hamilton society? o What is the relationship between the formal settlement sector and religious institutions and ethno-cultural associations in the city?  Settlement in their opinion – process through which newcomers interact with a variety of individuals and both formal and informal organizations in order to live and work in a new land.  Newcomers have agency: i.e. the ability to act and react, and to change their circumstances and surroundings.  Focus is on the ways that faith organizations and ethno-cultural associations (two sets of institutions in the informal settlement sector) help newcomers solve various settlement issues.  Faith based institutions are valued for the spiritual guidance they offer, while providing an anchor enabling newcomers to better position themselves to meet their new challenges. o They are important for meeting immigrants’ emotional needs.  Ethno-cultural organizations are promoting integration rather than acting as barriers to integration. o Also assist with employment  Immigrant newcomers display resourcefulness, ambition, and creativity as they interact with outside officials and co-ethnics to pave a path for themselves. Especially evident in places of worship and ethno-cultural communities.  Key words: o Settlement  the process through which immigrants enter, adjust to, and function within their new host environment. The New Relationship between the Social Sciences and the Indigenous Peoples of Canada (Cora J. Voyageur)  Paper highlights some of the changes that can help set the stage for a new relationship between First Nations people and the social science community.  Social change o FN population is increasing. The population is also getting more post- secondary education than before.  Economic change o More businesses owned by FN and banks for them. Non-FN are now interested in investing in FN businesses because they’ve proven lucrative.  Political change o FN are getting elected into political roles. Argues that self-government is the way to go, since Canada isn’t really doing anything to help their cause or further their interest.  Legal change o Legal changes giving FN more rights/getting their rights back. o Argues that social scientists must adjust the lens through which they view and represent FN people in their curriculum, research, publications, and dissemination of data.  Curriculum o Must add info on FN to the post-secondary curriculum and update it often.  Research o Academics who wish to conduct research in the first nations community must invest time, money, and energy to build a relationship with the community. Research must be conducted with the community, and not just on it.  Publishing and Dissemination of Data o Publications need to be accessible and understandable by FN. o Indigenous scholars must continue to research and publish their findings to help set the tone of the academic discourse.  Keywords o First Nations  A term of ethnicity referring to the Aboriginal peoples in Canada who are neither Inuit nor Metis. Changing Canadian Immigration and Foreign Worker Programs: Implications for Social Cohesion (Alan Simmons)  Paper examines new developments in Canada’s welcome to foreigners, the nation-building ideology that shapes these developments, and how the developments impact social cohesion.  Three periods of policy development: o 1960s and on  1962 – new method of selecting immigrants. Points system.  Dependent parents and others can be sponsored to come to Canada. Refugees also allowed. Foreign worker programs. Visas for foreign students.  Official policy discourse – Canada is a multicultural country in which all national ethnic and religious backgrounds are welcome. o 1990s  Change in selection criteria to privilege the immigration of very highly educated workers. o 2005 and on  More and more foreign workers are admitted  Widening spread in the skill levels of foreign workers  Canadian companies can now hire from outside Canada  Skilled workers can work in Canada for a period of time and then can apply for permanent residence. Ditto students.  Canada’s recent immigration and foreign workers policies generate large negative implications for social cohesion. o Immigrants aren’t doing as well in the job market as was hoped. o Immigrants are becoming marginalized due to low wages o Canada’s immigration policy is increasingly being dictated by companies, who want specific types of workers for their short-term interests. o Foreign workers aren’t protected by the same labour laws as Canadians are.  Keywords o Point system  A system used in the immigration process for distributing and allocating resources, or for ranking or evaluating candidates on the basis of points allocated or accumulated o Refugees  A person who has been forced to leave his or her native country in order to escape war, persecution, or natural disaster. o Social cohesion  a condition of connectedness, unity, cooperation, and trust among people in a society. Voting Across Immigrant Generations (Monica Boyd and Emily Laxer)  Voting = an important indicator of political participation. Also, political participation is widely considered a crucial mechanism in securing immigrants’ economic, social, and political foothold in the host society.  Point: want to know if immigrant offspring participate more, or less, in politics compared with immigrants who arrived in adulthood or compared to those whose ancestors have been in Canada for generations. Answer this by looking at generational differences in voting.
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