Chapter 12 – Immigration, Race, and Ethnicity
Bridging Understandings: Anishinaabe and White Perspectives on the Residential
School Apology and Prospects for Reconciliation (Jeffrey S. Denis)
Interviewed both white and aboriginal people (including those who were
part of the residential school system) to learn their views on Stephen
Harper’s apology. (Jeffrey S. Denis)
o Two groups view it in very different ways.
o Ultimately, the dominant white frame reflects a Canadian style of
laissez-faire or colour blind racism – an ideology that justifies racial
inequality, avoids responsibility, and defends dominant group
interests without sounding racist.
The residential school issue is not about money from the perspective of most
Aboriginals, bur rather seeking recognition for wrongdoing,
acknowledgement of guilt and acceptance of responsibility, healing
emotional and spiritual wounds, and working toward reconciliation.
Finds that whites tend to want to just accept that it happened and move on,
while Aboriginals want follow-ups on the apology – helping build
infrastructure, language schools, etc. – generally rebuilding what the
residential schools sought to destroy.
Aboriginals and whites tend to view residential school issues through
o Residential school Native residential schooling, a project intended
to assimilate Aboriginals into Euro-Canadian society and Christianity,
became part of Canada’s history starting in the 1840s. The use of
Native languages – known colloquially as “talking Indian” – was
vigorously discouraged. The schools were run by churches of various
denominations, and preaching frequently disparaged Aboriginal
spirituality, calling it devil worship. Students were subjected to the
denigration of Aboriginal identity and the promotion of Euro-
Canadian values and practices.
o Assimilation Refers to the decline of an ethnic distinction and its
corollary, cultural and social differences. Decline in this context means
that a distinction attenuates in salience – that the occurrences for
which it is relevant diminish in number and contract to fewer and
fewer domains of social life.
o Intergenerational Existing or occurring between or across different
generations of people.
The Informal Settlement Sector: Broadening the Lens to Understand Newcomer
Integration in Hamilton. (William Shaffir and Vic Satzewich)