Chapter 12 – Immigration, Race, and Ethnicity
Bridging Understandings: Anishinaabe and White Perspectives on the Residential
School Apology and Prospects for Reconciliation (Jeffrey S. Denis)
Interviewed both white and aboriginal people (including those who were
part of the residential school system) to learn their views on Stephen
Harper’s apology. (Jeffrey S. Denis)
o Two groups view it in very different ways.
o Ultimately, the dominant white frame reflects a Canadian style of
laissez-faire or colour blind racism – an ideology that justifies racial
inequality, avoids responsibility, and defends dominant group
interests without sounding racist.
The residential school issue is not about money from the perspective of most
Aboriginals, bur rather seeking recognition for wrongdoing,
acknowledgement of guilt and acceptance of responsibility, healing
emotional and spiritual wounds, and working toward reconciliation.
Finds that whites tend to want to just accept that it happened and move on,
while Aboriginals want follow-ups on the apology – helping build
infrastructure, language schools, etc. – generally rebuilding what the
residential schools sought to destroy.
Aboriginals and whites tend to view residential school issues through
o Residential school Native residential schooling, a project intended
to assimilate Aboriginals into Euro-Canadian society and Christianity,
became part of Canada’s history starting in the 1840s. The use of
Native languages – known colloquially as “talking Indian” – was
vigorously discouraged. The schools were run by churches of various
denominations, and preaching frequently disparaged Aboriginal
spirituality, calling it devil worship. Students were subjected to the
denigration of Aboriginal identity and the promotion of Euro-
Canadian values and practices.
o Assimilation Refers to the decline of an ethnic distinction and its
corollary, cultural and social differences. Decline in this context means
that a distinction attenuates in salience – that the occurrences for
which it is relevant diminish in number and contract to fewer and
fewer domains of social life.
o Intergenerational Existing or occurring between or across different
generations of people.
The Informal Settlement Sector: Broadening the Lens to Understand Newcomer
Integration in Hamilton. (William Shaffir and Vic Satzewich) Interested in understanding how newcomers go about trying to solve the
challenges they face when it comes to settlement and integration through
their participation in religious organizations and ethnically specific
o Method: 30 interviews with people connected with the immigration
field to Hamilton. Immigrants, people who work with immigrants, and
leaders of churches and ethnic community associations.
Two main questions:
o What role do religious institutions and ethno-cultural associations
play in helping newcomers adjust and integrate into Hamilton society?
o What is the relationship between the formal settlement sector and
religious institutions and ethno-cultural associations in the city?
Settlement in their opinion – process through which newcomers interact
with a variety of individuals and both formal and informal organizations in
order to live and work in a new land.
Newcomers have agency: i.e. the ability to act and react, and to change their
circumstances and surroundings.
Focus is on the ways that faith organizations and ethno-cultural associations
(two sets of institutions in the informal settlement sector) help newcomers
solve various settlement issues.
Faith based institutions are valued for the spiritual guidance they offer, while
providing an anchor enabling newcomers to better position themselves to
meet their new challenges.
o They are important for meeting immigrants’ emotional needs.
Ethno-cultural organizations are promoting integration rather than acting as
barriers to integration.
o Also assist with employment
Immigrant newcomers display resourcefulness, ambition, and creativity as
they interact with outside officials and co-ethnics to pave a path for
themselves. Especially evident in places of worship and ethno-cultural
o Settlement the process through which immigrants enter, adjust to,
and function within their new host environment.
The New Relationship between the Social Sciences and the Indigenous Peoples of
Canada (Cora J. Voyageur)
Paper highlights some of the changes that can help set the stage for a new
relationship between First Nations people and the social science community.
o FN population is increasing. The population is also getting more post-
secondary education than before.
o More businesses owned by FN and banks for them. Non-FN are now
interested in investing in FN businesses because they’ve proven
lucrative. Political change
o FN are getting elected into political roles. Argues that self-government
is the way to go, since Canada isn’t really doing anything to help their
cause or further their interest.
o Legal changes giving FN more rights/getting their rights back.
o Argues that social scientists must adjust the lens through which they
view and represent FN people in their curriculum, research,
publications, and dissemination of data.
o Must add info on FN to the post-secondary curriculum and update it
o Academics who wish to conduct research in the first nations
community must invest time, money, and energy to build a
relationship with the community. Research must be conducted with
the community, and not just on it.
Publishing and Dissemination of Data
o Publications need to be accessible and understandable by FN.
o Indigenous scholars must continue to research and publish their
findings to help set the tone of the academic discourse.
o First Nations A term of ethnicity referring to the Aboriginal peoples
in Canada who are neither Inuit nor Metis.
Changing Canadian Immigration and Foreign Worker Programs: Implications for
Social Cohesion (Alan Simmons)
Paper examines new developments in Canada’s welcome to foreigners, the
nation-building ideology that shapes these developments, and how the
developments impact social cohesion.
Three periods of policy development:
o 1960s and on
1962 – new method of selecting immigrants. Points system.
Dependent parents and others can be sponsored to come to
Canada. Refugees also allowed. Foreign worker programs.
Visas for foreign students.
Official policy discourse – Canada is a multicultural country in
which all national ethnic and religious backgrounds are
Change in selection criteria to privilege the immigration of very
highly educated workers.
o 2005 and on
More and more foreign workers are admitted
Widening spread in the skill levels of foreign workers
Canadian companies can now hire from outside Canada Skilled workers can work in Canada for a period of time and
then can apply for permanent residence. Ditto students.
Canada’s recent immigration and foreign workers policies generate large
negative implications for social cohesion.
o Immigrants aren’t doing as well in the job market as was hoped.
o Immigrants are becoming marginalized due to low wages
o Canada’s immigration policy is increasingly being dictated by
companies, who want specific types of workers for their short-term
o Foreign workers aren’t protected by the same labour laws as
o Point system A system used in the immigration process for
distributing and allocating resources, or for ranking or evaluating
candidates on the basis of points allocated or accumulated
o Refugees A person who has been forced to leave his or her native
country in order to escape war, persecution, or natural disaster.
o Social cohesion a condition of connectedness, unity, cooperation,
and trust among people in a society.
Voting Across Immigrant Generations (Monica Boyd and Emily Laxer)
Voting = an important indicator of political participation. Also, political
participation is widely considered a crucial mechanism in securing
immigrants’ economic, social, and political foothold in the host society.
Point: want to know if immigrant offspring participate more, or less, in
politics compared with immigrants who arrived in adulthood or compared to
those whose ancestors have been in Canada for generations. Answer this by
looking at generational differences in voting.
o Three potential ideas – straight line (each successive generation
participates more), inverted V (second generation participates most,
then participation declines with 3 and onwards generations), or a V
(second generation votes least).
Collected a bunch of data, analyzed it.
RESULT: slight inclination towards inverted V model, though not very big.
Immigrants are least likely to have voted, though.
o Immigrant A person who migrates to and settles in a country other
than that of their birthplace and upbringing
Chapter 7 – Racial and Ethnic Groups
Race a set of people commonly defined as belonging to the same group by
virtue of common visible features, such as skin colour or facial characteristics Ethnic group a set of people commonly defined as belonging to the sae
group by virtue of a common birthplace, ancestry, or culture.
Racial variations differences in behaviour which some people attribute to
difference in race.
Ways of looking at… Racial and Ethnic Groups
o The inequality between racial or ethnic groups has a social purpose.
Ethnic solidarity increases social cohesion. Also, gives newly
arrived groups a landing pad and strategies for assimilation in
o Stress that social inequality provides incentives in the form of status
and material rewards that prompt people to take on the most
important social roles. See exclusion, prejudice, and discrimination as
providing benefits for society as a whole, and for particular groups
o Ethnoracial diversity benefits society as it allows for the discussion of
more widely varying opinions and perspectives.
o Focus on how the powerful group benefits from differentiation,
exclusion, and institutional racism. Say that majority groups seek to
dominate minorities, to gain an economic advantage and because
domination makes them feel superior.
o Racialization – the tendency to introduce racial distinctions into
situations that can be managed without such distinctions.
o Focus on microsociological aspects of race and discrimination, such as
the ways people construct ethnic differences and racial labels to
subordinate minority groups.
o Racial (or ethnic) socialization The process by which we learn to
perceive and evaluate people (including ourselves) according to
presumed racial or ethnic differences.