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Chapter 4

Habbits of inequality chapter 4 exclusion.docx

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Lorne Tepperman

Hab. Of Inequality Chp 4 Exclusion Source: Jeffery Jensen Arnett – Psychologist& Prof in 1990 at Clark Uni. Theory/Concept/Term: Prolonged Childhood among 20 somethings Emerging Adulthood: A theory of development from the late teens through the twenties & Emrg Adlthd: The winding road from late teens through twenties. -He noticed a diff. between classical theories and what he saw in students. -He called emerging adults (20 somethings) in psychological terms, developmental stage. -Scientific neurological research shows the brain develops until 25 especially for prefrontal cortex responsible for rational planning. -Mainly found in developed countries, conditions are rooted in trends: -need for more education -globalization of manufacturing jobs -replacement of those jobs with positions that deal with information technology -destigmatization of premarital sex and cohabitation Theory/Concept/Term: Empty or Cluttered Nest Syndrome: Definition: -kids do or don’t live at the family home longer Theory/Concept/Term: Sandwich Generation: Definition: -middle age (baby boomers) who take care of their children and their elderly parents Centenarians: people over 100 years old & Super Centenarians: people over 110 years old Source: Erik Erikson Theory/Concept/Term: 8-Stage Theory -divides adulthood into three stages: -young (20-45), middle (45-65), late (65+) Source: Kenneth Keniston (published book adolescence and young adulthood in 1965) Theory/Concept/Term: Alienation and childhood experiences -alienated/uncommitted male undergrads in Harvard in the 60s -described them as ambivalent, unsure and aimless, unable to settle down in life -alienation from consumer capitalism and military industrial complex -related it to childhood experiences Definition: -more schooling for paid work -young people spend more years economically dependent on parents, loans or spouse -because of this, young people are infantilized (freed from adult responsibilities, adult norms and adult respect) -age is a social marker: designating the number of years since a person was born -age also a kind of performance: (doing age) we perform our age like we perform our gender Source: Philippe Aries – French historian, author of book on childhood (L’Enfact et la vie familiale sous l’Ancien Regime aka Centuries of Childhood) Theory/Concept/Term: Development of Childhood -proposes that notion of childhood was invented at a particular time in European history -cothirms his theory that schools play a large role in shaping our ideas about age, before the 16 century, few European children went to formal schools like the one they do today -some educated in the military where they learn to mature early -concludes invention of formal schooling and age based segregation of students that adults start to view children as significantly different from themselves -new phase of emerging adulthood is not fully adulthood in the traditional sense: -it has its own unique, socially constructed characteristics -include social marginality, behavioural irresponsibility and economic dependence Source: G. Stanley Hall – psychologist Theory/Concept/Term: -1904, published study called Adolescence, which considered how changes in the social, cultural and economic context had created a new period of life between childhood and adulthood Source: Elaine Cumming and William Henry Theory/Concept/Term: Disengagement Theory 1961 -proposed the exclusion of older adults from the labour market is functional for society as a whole -as people age they decline -theory suggests that older people’s retirement from paid work serves several functions for society: -empties important social positions allowing next generations to move up the social hierarchy -allows retiring individuals a moment of recognition for their contributions -retirement ensures that society regularly replaces out-dated skills and ideas with more useful ones Source: Ellen Langer – social psychologist Theory/Concept/Term: -in 1979 recruited male volunteers over the age of 75 and put them through a special test: turn back the clock to 1959 (20 years earlier) -arranged for her subjects to watch old television shows and eat meals like they once ate in those days and to become responsible again, do everything for themselves without care and support of others that they have come to need and expect for one week nd -subjects protested against the rules but by the 2 day, everybody began to help in the kitchen as they grew accustomed to their new situation -as the week went on, cognitive and physical changes appeared: improvements in the men’s dexterity, walk, posture, IQ, vision, hearing, cognitive abilities, joint flexibility, blood pressure and arthritis -exclusion promotes ageism and mistreatment of older adults; it’s a form of dehumanization Source: Otto Von Bisma
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