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Addictions Ch 8.docx

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Addictions Ch 8- txtbk notes  Addictionsocially disapproved behaviour that is uncontrollable repetitious and harmful  Social effects of addiction arte huge in broken fams, no job,  Whereas the medical approach focuses attn on the addicted individual, sociological approach focuses on the social focuses that increase the risks that certain ppl or groups will develop addictions  Gambling is a behaviour on a continuum  Canadian problems gambling index reported a pre valence of 3.1% of the pop for moderate nd 0.7% for severe gambling problems  In a pop of 32 mill cnda there r roughly 480,000 cndians with a gambling problem  The cpgi is a scale developed to measure problem or addictive gambling  Gambling has bcome a public health issue its a behaviour learned socially in the usual ways. Thru observation, reward and emulation often ppl learn to gamble early in their childhood cuz of their fams  Ppl advertise gambling with music, rewards, flashing lights, by having buses go to casinos, having casinos open 24/7, free drinks food etc  Labelling theoryexplores the effects of negative labels on individuals self-conceptions and is interested in the development of a deviant identity deviance is the result of a dominant group-insiders-devising and applying moral rules to less powerful groups of “outsiders”  Most social scn work on gambling takes a psychological approach: it focuses on the thinking and behaviour of individuals w.o considering their social env -ex: it views addictive gambling as the result of cognitive distortion-bad thinking  Problem gambling is linked to ppl who r impulsive or display anti social behaviour who drink to much lonely and display excessive anger  Drugany substance that causes a biochemical reaction in the body  What ppl define as a legal drug or illegal drug depends less on its chemical properties and more on surrounding economical social and political factors  Attitude changeschange of an attitude in regards to a drug -ex: opium  Drug abuseexcessive intake a of a drug all the time  Adolescent alcohol use since the late 1970s = decreased  Cigarettes and cannabis=increased in early 1990s  Drug dependency the routine need for a drug for medical or desired reasons  Tolerancea symptom of repeated and frequent drug use; refers to the decreased effectiveness of any given drug  Medicalizationprocess thru which behaviours are reconceived as instances of illness and are deemed no longer sinful since they’re outside personal control  Redef of alcohol abuse= disease common element was an obsession with cleanliness and purity, virtue and hygiene vs dirt since wickedness and filth middle upper class vs working class, native born vs immigrant, rural vs urban areas,boy vs girl  Drug subculturegroup of ppl who share common attitudes and beliefs surrounding drug use their beliefs are different from the rest of the society’s  Cndians with university degrees are the least likely of all education groups to report regular heavy drinking  The 2004 cndians campus survey reveals that 1/3 of undergraduate students engage in harmful drinking practice  Tranquilizers and anti-depressant pills were used more for women than men  In 2005 five mil cndians reported smoking daily or occasionally, a drop from nearly 7 mill Canadians in 1996/7  Most adult smokers develop their habit of smoking before the age of 20  Ppl with less than a high school edu are almost 3x more likely than uni grads to be current smokers  European data shows that smoking is more common in teenagers of single parent homes  The likelihood of trying drugs given the opportunity increases with age  Normative boundaries restricting girls access to and use of drugs are due to traditional gender roles that limit girls to their freedom  Aboriginal ppl suffer from trauma related to sexual abuse nd violence they increase the chance of them doing drugs/alcohol  Studies show that the use of marijuana is disproportionately higher among native than non-native American adolescents  Alcohol use is more strongly and consistently associated with both violent and non violent offences than is marijuana and heroin users  Alcohol consumption is strongly linked to domestic age  Alcohol use rates are higher among well-educated high income ppl than among poorly educated, low income ppl, alcohol abuse and problem drinking are reported more often the latter group.  Fetal alcohol syndrome occurs when preg woman drink baby comes out deformed it occurs in 3 lives out of 1000  Health outcomes faced by users of illegal drugs include shortened life spans, dietary irregularities, severe weight loss, vomiting etc  Centre for addiction and mental health shows that 1 in 5 aids cases in cnda are linked to drug use  Drug users likely to develop anxiety, depression and phobias  Marijuana short-term memory loss, impaired learning, emotional deficit  Tobacco=primary cause of lung cancer 19,000 were expected to die from lung cancer  Cognitive enhancers help boost up ur learning in ur brain, help u pay attn in class and learn easier  Social constructionists cast doubt on the veracity of the disease model of addiction which they claim didn’t arise out of the scientific discoveries but from a widening of the addiction concept to include more and more activities  In the 1920 ppl died/went blind from drinking beverages that contained dangerous chemicals they’d confuse methanol with ethanol  Increased amounts of time in front of tv games etc = physical inactivity, poor eating, sex and smoking  Studies show kids are more into smoking and exposed to it cuz of media  Cndas drug strategy prevention-provide info on drugs and the consequences treatment for those who are addicts/health diseases harm reductionlimit the secondary effects of substance use possessionto prevent ppl from getting illegal drugs st  1 3 pilliars recognize that drug abuse is public, medical and social health issue last pillar recognizes that drugs shud be controlled and limit the availability  Criminalization encourages organized crime, it prevents quality control and puts heroin drug users at higher risk of aids  Ppl of high socio economic status are more likely to b heavy drinkers CH 9- HEALTH ISSUES  Medical sociologyfield of socio that examines the social context of health, illness and health care  Biomedical view of med medical perspective that emphasizes western scientific principles, defines health as the absence of illness, views human body as a machine that needs fixing which promotes the occupations of a doctor to cure the machine  Well beingstate of existence characterized by happiness, satisfaction of basic human needs  Biopsycological view of health and illnessmedical perspective that considers health and disease as products of the interaction betwn body mind and env  Epidemiology an applied scn that examines the causes distribution and control of disease in a pop  Life expectancythe avg # of yrs remaining to a person @ an age given current age specific mortality ra
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