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SOC102H1 (285)


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Populations, Cities, and Neighbourhoods-SP book  Economic theorists Julian Simon believed that human beings are the ultimate resource  Simon would argue that to solve the problems associated with population growth, we may not need fewer ppl but better-equipped and educated ppl and not a suspicion of tech, but instead a commitment to using tech for the good of humanity  Demographic transition shift in a population or society through a series of stages from high birth and death rates to low birth and death rates st  During the 1 stage of the demographic transition, when a society is still in its pre-modern phase, the number of births and deaths are both high but equal, resulting in a steady population size with only minimal growth  2 stage usually arrives as the population enters the early stages of urbanization and industrialization, when socio-economic advances result in declining death rates. during this per birth rates remain high, resulting in explosive pop growth and a young pop profile  Stage 3 birth rates begin to fall, slowly reaching lvls comparable to the death rate as a result, the pop continues to grow but the rate of increase slows down.  Stage 4 is when a society reaches a post-industrial phase of development, pop is once again stable with rates of births and deaths equal again and at historic lows. low birth rates, the overall pop begins to age at this stage there is no pop growth due to excess births over deaths  Canada is currently at lvl 4- post industrial stage  Malthus is famous for his theory of pop he reasoned that a pop growing exponentially(that is thru a series such as 1,2,4,8,16) but the increase of food supply is only addictive or arithmetic (that is series of 1,2,3,4,5)  Limits on available land, soil quality and tech all constrain the growth in food supplies.  Positive checkspart of Malthusian theory, they prevent overpop by increasing the death rate. Including war, famine, disease, pestilence  Preventive checksin Malthusian theory these prevent overpop by limiting the # of survivals of live births. They include abortions, infanticide, sexual abstinence, delayed marriage and contraceptive techs  Neo-Malthusians believe the world is becoming overpop, that population growth will outstrip agricultural growth and that this population burden will permanently harm the env  With pop growth come new challenges, including increased competition for non-renewable resources, the need to feed, nurture and educate a larger proportion of young people , increased pressures on the health and welfare systems, and the need for governments to prevent and deal with economic and natural disasters.  Eminent demographer Alfred Sauvy described potential overpop as a false problem and argued against efforts to control global pop  Pop densitythe # of ppl who live within a geographic area, usually expressed as ppl per square mile or square kilometre  Pop density arises in 2 main ways: through high fertility combined with low mortality and through a migration of people to places of perceived greater opportunity these 2 elements are linked: reproduction has been shown to be density-dependant for a wide variety of species, including humans  As density increases, fertility declines eventually  With growing pop density the impetus to develop tech increases: there is a pressure towards innovation  Researchers find 2 diff affects of pop pressure on rural economies in south-central Ethiopia from 1950 to 2004 one is pressure on existing households to feed and house a growing number of children. The other is an increased demand on the economy for more jobs.  When both demands are low ppl extend agricultural production, taking advantage of the availability of land. When both demand lvls are increasing, ppl intensify and diversify their agricultural practices, often leading to innovation ^^ no wonder then that in rural communities, major agricultural growth and rural development occur in districts with high pop density, less constrained envs and better access to markets, irrigation canals and capital loans.  ^^ these changes in response to pop density are largely a result of the changed perception of available resources and the sense something can be done  The growth of pop density is associated historically with economic growth, the growth of cities, development of urban lifestyles and the build-up of creativity  Density in cities allows for what economists call “economies of scale”  Cities are large markets so they make possible human experiences ex going to the opera, restaurants, bookstores etc cities make it easier for humans to interact  Macintyre et allfound that poorer more deprived neighbourhoods are rich in certain kinds of resources-public nurseries, public primary schools, police stns, pharmacies, post offices bus stops bingo halls etc more prosperous areas are rich in other kinds of resources-schools, banks, museums, subway stns, bowling tennis courts hospital, tourist attractions etc  The sheer size and diversity of city pop allow for specialization and diversity in the goods and service on offer  According to United nations development program international survey of mayors, the #1 urban problems is unemployment, 2 insufficient solid waste disposal, 3 poverty  Gemeinschaftsocial situations in which those involved treat one another as ends rather than as means; primary relationships based on sentiment, found most often in rural life.  Gesellschaftsocial situation in which those involved treat one another as means rather than ends; secondary relations based primarily on calculation and individual interest, found most often in city life. its characterized by dense networks centralized and controlling elites, multiple social ties, intimacy and emotional meaning  Fluidity means ppl r forced into many interactions with strangers  Urbanizationthe growth in t
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