Populations, Cities, and Neighbourhoods-SP book
Economic theorists Julian Simon believed that human beings are the ultimate resource
Simon would argue that to solve the problems associated with population growth, we may not need
fewer ppl but better-equipped and educated ppl and not a suspicion of tech, but instead a
commitment to using tech for the good of humanity
Demographic transition shift in a population or society through a series of stages from high birth and
death rates to low birth and death rates
During the 1 stage of the demographic transition, when a society is still in its pre-modern phase, the
number of births and deaths are both high but equal, resulting in a steady population size with only
2 stage usually arrives as the population enters the early stages of urbanization and industrialization,
when socio-economic advances result in declining death rates.
during this per birth rates remain high, resulting in explosive pop growth and a young pop profile
Stage 3 birth rates begin to fall, slowly reaching lvls comparable to the death rate
as a result, the pop continues to grow but the rate of increase slows down.
Stage 4 is when a society reaches a post-industrial phase of development, pop is once again stable with
rates of births and deaths equal again and at historic lows.
low birth rates, the overall pop begins to age at this stage
there is no pop growth due to excess births over deaths
Canada is currently at lvl 4- post industrial stage
Malthus is famous for his theory of pop
he reasoned that a pop growing exponentially(that is thru a series such as 1,2,4,8,16)
but the increase of food supply is only addictive or arithmetic (that is series of 1,2,3,4,5)
Limits on available land, soil quality and tech all constrain the growth in food supplies.
Positive checkspart of Malthusian theory, they prevent overpop by increasing the death rate.
Including war, famine, disease, pestilence
Preventive checksin Malthusian theory these prevent overpop by limiting the # of survivals of live
births. They include abortions, infanticide, sexual abstinence, delayed marriage and contraceptive
Neo-Malthusians believe the world is becoming overpop, that population growth will outstrip
agricultural growth and that this population burden will permanently harm the env
With pop growth come new challenges, including increased competition for non-renewable resources,
the need to feed, nurture and educate a larger proportion of young people , increased pressures on
the health and welfare systems, and the need for governments to prevent and deal with economic and
Eminent demographer Alfred Sauvy described potential overpop as a false problem and argued against
efforts to control global pop
Pop densitythe # of ppl who live within a geographic area, usually expressed as ppl per square mile
or square kilometre Pop density arises in 2 main ways: through high fertility combined with low mortality and through a
migration of people to places of perceived greater opportunity
these 2 elements are linked: reproduction has been shown to be density-dependant for a wide
variety of species, including humans
As density increases, fertility declines eventually
With growing pop density the impetus to develop tech increases: there is a pressure towards
Researchers find 2 diff affects of pop pressure on rural economies in south-central Ethiopia from 1950
one is pressure on existing households to feed and house a growing number of children. The other is
an increased demand on the economy for more jobs.
When both demands are low ppl extend agricultural production, taking advantage of the availability of
land. When both demand lvls are increasing, ppl intensify and diversify their agricultural practices,
often leading to innovation
^^ no wonder then that in rural communities, major agricultural growth and rural development
occur in districts with high pop density, less constrained envs and better access to markets, irrigation
canals and capital loans.
^^ these changes in response to pop density are largely a result of the changed perception of available
resources and the sense something can be done
The growth of pop density is associated historically with economic growth, the growth of cities,
development of urban lifestyles and the build-up of creativity
Density in cities allows for what economists call “economies of scale”
Cities are large markets so they make possible human experiences ex going to the opera, restaurants,
cities make it easier for humans to interact
Macintyre et allfound that poorer more deprived neighbourhoods are rich in certain kinds of
resources-public nurseries, public primary schools, police stns, pharmacies, post offices bus stops
bingo halls etc
more prosperous areas are rich in other kinds of resources-schools, banks, museums, subway stns,
bowling tennis courts hospital, tourist attractions etc
The sheer size and diversity of city pop allow for specialization and diversity in the goods and service
According to United nations development program international survey of mayors, the #1 urban
problems is unemployment, 2 insufficient solid waste disposal, 3 poverty
Gemeinschaftsocial situations in which those involved treat one another as ends rather than as
means; primary relationships based on sentiment, found most often in rural life.
Gesellschaftsocial situation in which those involved treat one another as means rather than ends;
secondary relations based primarily on calculation and individual interest, found most often in city life.
its characterized by dense networks centralized and controlling elites, multiple social ties, intimacy
and emotional meaning
Fluidity means ppl r forced into many interactions with strangers Urbanizationthe growth in t