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War and Terrorism Notes  Political scn and socioboth study policy and state; both are interested in power difference=political scn deals with machinery of gov and public admin; elections, polling, pressure groups, relationship between political parties etc political socio is more concerned with the relationships betwn politics, social institutions, ideologies and culture socio is esp interested in authority and social processes that make authority feel legitimate  ^^ they also differ in their methods political scn tend to do more library research, more textual analysis of documents and debates and more examination of laws rules; their work is more philosophical then historical socio do more survey research and more often interview ppl ; they’re more # oriented and spend time living with ppl  Max Weber 1 socio to analyze the working of authority he explained important shifts in the bases of authority, shifts from traditional authority to rational-legal authority he showed important social and cultural shifts accompanied such changes in bases of authority  Barrington Moore; “Social orgins of dictatorship...” he was a Marxist theorist using Marxist theory to analyze class relations and their effects on politics. he showed that during the process of modernization, it matters whether the dominant class in society is the middle class peasant class or traditional ruling class the 1 scenario leads to wut generally we know as democracy 2 is communism; 3 fascism  Talcott Parsons “social system”= functionalist his talent=finding similarities btwn diff social systems he asserted that all social systems-fams, groups, orgs- have a political process called the “goal attainment function” this function is necessary for the survival of the system the political system expresses nd strives to achieve collective goals  George Homans “the human group” functionalist he said if u watch ppl u can see them “doing politics” u can observe goal setting, resource distribution, ritual creation and tradition preservation they do not meet ”system needs” but because its personally rewarding and they know it  Both Parsons and Homans believed that groups follow stable patterns that contribute to their survival  There are no politics w.o ideologies  Ideologies are like religion they give ppl meaning and goals that r bigger then themselves  An ideology is a coherent set of interrelated beliefs about the nature of the world/ppl it guides a person’s interpretation of external events it explains how society should be or is  Liberal ideology having the mindset that each individual is responsible for their own success/failure it affects the way ppl behave in many situations on the macro side it influences which political party they will vote for and whether they will support welfare benefits for the poor  on micro side it influences how they will react if they r thrown out of work L.I encourages to blame the victim for their success/failure and support the status quo since it is the ideology of the dominant it is often called “dominant ideology”  Micheal Foucaultin modern societies power is exercised by setting standard and defining what is normal and abnormal, proper/improper thru these beliefs of the norms and standards we come to view ourselves as good bad, normal or abnormal  these beliefs form the basis for our self-image and self0esteem they help shape our goals  Dominant ideo supports the status quo we consider it dominant if the most powerful groups in society sponsor the belief is important part of popular culture and entertainment ex: American cultures a high value is placed on heroism and war; this makes it easier for American politicians to mobilize public sentiment behind activities like the Iraq war and cold war everywhere dominant ideos influence political life by shaping public opinion, but there is no single “public” a wide range of social types ex immigration, labour, mobility etc creates a variety of publics  Politics is about mobilizing public opinion and unifying specific fractions of the electorate around specific concerns.  Ideos are important for social chance bcuz they motivated and control ppl  In changing a society ppl always have to create and accept ideos b4 ppl can change their political order they must imagine a new order worth fighting for  Impute certainty Stephen Colbert calls  that “truthiness”  The bandwagon effect is one ex: of the way opinion polls influence public opinion like ppl being apart of the group that succeeds; they get on the bandwagon this effect shows up in post-election polls when a much larger # of voters claim to have voted for the winning candidate then actually did  Propaganda  any idea or doctrine that is spread to influences ppls opinions and actions it can identify itself as any info that reps itself as pure and unquestionable ex of propaganda= Sunday school lessons, advertising, election campaigns the best way to protect against a blind acceptance of propaganda is education, openness to info and tolerance for ambiguity  Surveys data show Canadians distrust politicians more than anyone else  Ideos can dominate but also empower ppl to form protest groups they propose change that is either radical or reformist  In cnda medicare, welfare and unemployment insurance are reforms that were based on the reformist ideology  Radical ideo want to reshape the society this is what the cooperative commonwealth fed did in 1933 this manifesto declared that no CCF gov will rest til it has wiped out capitalism and put into operation the full program of socialized planning which will lead to the establishment in cnda of the co-operative commonwealth  Counter ideos  counter becuz the challenge the bases of the dominant ideo they also expose interest that dominant ideos serve and offer ppl a different vision of society similar to feminism feminism denies the legitimacy of sexism and traditional ways of treating ppl they call the status quo to account and deny legitimacy to usual ways of treating ppl  Ppl that promote counter ideo get their msg out thru public meetings and media intellectuals aka intelligentsia (high class ppl) often play important role in promoting counter ideo ex: polish intelligentsia had a central role in the solidarity mov during 1980s. In both Poland and Hungary the intelligentsia had helpd to create a civil society since their collapse  Marxists have claimed that dom ideo promotes “false consciousness” a view of the world that is out of sync with objective reality we c this when blame is placed on victimized and vulnerable ppl for their problems and fail to consider the problem may b cuz of the way society is orgd some ppl think girls get raped becuz of the clothes they wear; or drug addicts can only blame themselves for being addicted these views hold victim responsible for their failure; this reveals “false
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