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Canada (161,538)
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SOC102H1 (285)

Crime notes SP book.docx

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Crime notes SP book  Victimization can reduce ppls trust in social institutions and their willingness to take part in community life  Crime and its aftermath can damage the central institutions of civil society-fams, workplaces schools  Crime is a social activity with social causes and effects  Men =more likely than women to be victims and offenders in crime  Crime will increase whenever social inequality does  Griffin and Miller have called the crime phenomenon “crime control theatre”  AMBER-America’s missing broadcast emergency response designed to interrupt serious child kidnappings in progress by soliciting citizens tips to help officials quickly rescue victims AMBER is an imaginary solution to a socially constructed problem  Lawsrules of conduct that may provide for the punishment of violators i.o.w the formal rules about what a society’s members can/cnt do  Laws are important tools for promoting good behaviour  When laws are broken it is considered a crime  Crimebehaviour that is prohibited by applicable statutory law  Social orderthe prevalence of harmonious relationships; used synonymously with social org. exist only when ppl obey rules and social situations are controlled  Rulesserve not only to indicate which behaviours are acceptable but to allow ppl to anticipate the behaviour of others  Social disorderthe uncertain and unpredictable conditions in which rules aren’t obeyed env is unsafe and the boundaries of acceptable behaviour r broken  Street crimes easily investigated cheaply prosecuted crimes  Criminal justice operates like a funnel; of the many criminal incidents only a few are reported and of these fewer result in arrest let alone imprisonment  Canadian crime and severity is decreasing  Self-reportingthe victim reports to police that crime has happened this is the most direct method of measuring crime but not accurate come not everyone reports crimes  Victimization surveys may yield a more precise account because victims have a closer connection to the crimes committed; they have directly suffered the effects  Victimization survey samples of ppl are askd how many times within a period they have been the victim of particular crimes  According to statistics cnda in 08 break-ins decreased and it decreased the overall severity rate in a 10yr period  Overall crime severity fell by 20% from 1998 to 2008 due to break ins decreasing  Violent crimes account for 10-12% of total crimes in cnda  Conventional crimesthe traditionally illegal behaviours that most ppl think of as a crime assault and homicide =12 % of all crimes yet are given so much media attn to  Homicidekilling of one person by another  Homicide is divided into 2 categories; murder and manslaughter  Victims of homicide are more likely to be killed by fam  Homicide nd attempted homicide = 0.4% of all crimes in 2004  Assaults are common; it was 90% of all violent crimes reported; assaults differentiate depending on if weapon was involved on if major body harm as done  Sexual assaults; rape and harassment=violent crime but are rarely reported  Stalking= associate with gendered harassment, abuse and violence its reported by 62% of young adults typically it includes efforts to re-establish a former relationship  Stalkers=men more then female  Women who are relentlessly stalked report more severe physical violence, sexual assault and emotional abuse they suffer from depression and post traumatic stress disorder  Vice crimesdeviant behaviour that is immoral  ex: gambling, prostitution, drug trafficking they provide opportunity for org crime  Most crimes in cnda are non-violent crimes ex: theft, property damage, drug production, break ins  White collar crimescrimes committed by a person of respectability and high social status in the course of his occupation ex: fraud, insider trading, embezzlement, forgery they can amount to hundred and millions of $ white collar crimes take adv of gaps in social structure like loopholes or confusion about laws to profit from their crimes; they gain wherever gov decline to supervise the economic marketplace  Govs give white crimes a lower priority than conventional crime white crimes cause economic, physical and psychological harm more then street crime  Organized crimegroup or system of professional criminals who practise illegal activities as a way of life and whose criminal activities r coordinated thru a hierarchical system of bosses  Org crime groups =Sicilian mafia, Chinese triads, big circle boys, hells angels  Worldwide gross value of organized crime = $6oo billion-1.5 trillion  Early socios believe crime came from poverty nd neighbourhood disorg but in 1940 after William white’s street corner society socios saw crime was organized  Organized crime has strong connections to white-collar crime and vice crimes ex: drug trafficking, porn, prostitution  Org crime prospers under 4 conditions: 1: it flourishes under conditions of scarcity and inequality 2: common where poverty and prejudice keep ppl from moving in easily to find work elsewhere 3: it provides protection in communities that lack good access to welfare, health care, and good-quality edu 4: it flourishes among ppl who lack human/cultural capital  Young less-edu men are likely to be both offenders and victims than the avg Canadian adult esp with assault  In N.A the female rate of killing intimate partners is nearly as high with men  Women r 2x arrested for prostitution compared to men  Of the 566,000 Canadians adults charged with criminal code offence in 2004, 18% were female and youth female was 23%  Men are 7 times more likely ro commit arson then women 9 times more likely commit murder 10 x to commit armed robbery 35x to discharge a firearm with intend to harm 54 x to commit sexual assault 78 x force rape  In 1984 females 17 and under accounted fro 19 % of all violent offence charges, in 2004 it increased to 26%  Differential socializationthe processes where individuals learn to behave in accordance with prevailing stands of culture or gender ex: boys and men learn to b less inhibited in using aggressive and violent actions and this may account for the disproportionate # of males involved in crime  Domestic abuse= vio against women/children  Victims of sex-based crimes like rape/assault are mostly females  Increased gender equality=decrease sexual abuse Whaley and Messner called this “ameliorative hypothesis  Gender equality increases so does sexual assault increases this is called backlash hypothesis  Y
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