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SOC102H1 Chapter Notes -Ethnography, Social Issue, Exhibitionism

Course Code
Lorne Tepperman

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May 14th: Probs 1
Social Problems Chapter 1
What is a social problem?
A condition/pattern of behavior that warrants public concern/collective action
What is sociology
Systematic study of societies
The rise of sociology itself coincided with the rise of modern societies
There are two aspects to social problems
1) Objective Elements
Measurable features of a negative social condition (eg crime, sexual abuse, pollution)
2) Subjective Elements
Our evaluations of objective conditions and the processes that influence their
evolution (eg moral labels)
By bringing together objective and subjective elements (changes in measurable reality and our
perceptions of measurable reality, we can define a social problem as a condition and process
Sociological Imagination
C. Wright Mills
The ability to see connections between one‟s life and the social world
This enables people to distinguish between personal troubles and public issue
This connection is made by closely analyzing reality at two levels
o Microsociology: local/personal level
o Macrosociology: major bureaucratic organization and social institutions
Social „reality‟
Social reality is a social construct, a set of ideals, beliefs and views that are
flexible and open to interpersonal influence
People‟s subjective view of reality, not reality itself shapes behavior
Moral entrepreneurs
Those who classify social problems and try to make a change
Claims Making

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Anything people do to propagate
There are 4 basic assumptions made
The world does not present itself objectively to the observer
Historical and cultural specificity recognized
Knowledge is sustained by social process
Knowledge and social action go together
Do social problems only become real when attention is drawn to them?
How can we tell if a social problem is real?
Are there differences/inequalities in the groups?
Is there exclusion?
Are there second-order outcomes?
Social Problems are not the exclusive domain of sociologists
Biological Perspective: focus on genetic, hormonal, neurological factors
Psychological Perspective: focus on cognitive, perceptual and effective processes
Ways of looking at society
Structural Functionalism
A Theoretical paradigm emphasizing the way each part of society functions to
fulfill the needs of society as a whole
Everyone/everything has a function in society including poverty
o Manifest Functions: Intended/easily recognizable
o Latent Functions: Unintended/hidden from participants
Conflict Theory
Marx and Engels, emphasize conflict and change as the regular and permanent
feature of society
Marx believed in two broad groups
o Bourgeoisie: elite owners of the means of production
o Proleriat: working class who must sell labour for wage
Symbolic Interaction
Paradigm that studies the processes by which individuals interpret and
respond to the actions of others, and that conceives of society as the product
of this continuous face-to-face interaction

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Focuses on small group interactions
o Labeling theory: a social problem is only a social problem once it has
been labeled
Population Health Perspectives
Approach to health with goals of reducing health inequalities
May 16th: Points 9
Starting Points- Chapter 9: Classes and Workplaces
The satisfaction people feel from their work depends on what they want to get out of their
work and what they are expecting.
Class: a group of people who share the same relationship to the means of production or to
capital (Marx) or a group of people who share a common economic situation based on
income, property , authority, etc. (Weber).
Marx→ conflict between classes is an inherent problem for capitalism
Durkheim→ conflict between classes in inherent in industrialism
In our age of capitalism it‟s the managers and directors who control capital, not the
Also, state institutions exercise a lot of power in society
Marx → capitalism alienates workers. They become isolated and estranged from the
products they make, their co-workers and sometimes even themselves. The anger
employees feel can be channelled to other places (violence against women, children,
minority groups).
Workplace inequalities translate into broader social and economic inequalities.
Functionalists argue that poverty and inequality have an important place in society.
In this case the inequality cause by capitalism is a “graded ladder” where people who are
at different rungs have different jobs and incomes. Meaning that poverty is a way to
motivate people to move up the ladder.
The jobs at the top of the ladder require the most education but have the most benefits.
Functionalists think that everyone needs work along with hope and love.
Work allows you to acquire material necessities for you and your family.
Work also allows you to satisfy your need (emotional) of wanting to be a productive and
valuable member of society, to gain praise and recognition and to interact and co-operate
with other people.
Work is a platform for social interaction, social solidarity and cohesion. It‟s a place to
work out your social and creative impulses.
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